p Batch Scripts and Windows

Windows Command Prompt and Batch File Commands, and,

Shortcut Keys for Windows, WinExplorer, Internet Explorer


COMMANDS by CATEGORY

PC/System
AT | CMD | DATE | DRIVERQUERY | GRAFTABL | HOSTNAME | MODE | MSCONFIG | PATH | PERFMON | REG | REGEDIT | SCHTASKS | SET | SHUTDOWN | START | SYSTEMINFO | TASKKILL | TASKLIST | TIME | TSKILL | VER
Cmd Prompt
DOSKEY | EXIT | FOR | HELP | PROMPT | TITLE
Screen
CLS | COLOR | PROMPT
Disk Drives
ASSOC | CHKDSK | CHKNTFS | COMPACT | CONVERT | DEFRAG | DISKCOMP | DISKCOPY | FORMAT | LABEL | RECOVER | SUBST | VOL
Directories
CD(CHDIR) | DIR | MD(MKDIR) | POPD | PUSHD | RD(RMDIR) | TREE | XCOPY
Files
ATTRIB | CACLS | COMP | COPY | DEL(ERASE) | FC | FINDSTR | FTYPE | MOVE | PRINT | REN(RENAME) | REPLACE | TYPE | VERIFY | XCOPY
Batch
CALL | ECHO | ENDLOCAL | FOR | GOTO | IF | PAUSE | REM | SET | SETLOCAL | SHIFT
Input/Output Filters
FIND | MORE | SORT
Schedule Tasks
AT | SCHTASKS
Servers / Remotes
FTP | IPCONFIG | MSG | MSTSC | NBTSTAT | NETSTAT | PING | RASDIAL | SHADOW | SHUTDOWN | TASKKILL | TASKLIST | TELNET | TSCON | TSDISCON,
Networks
MSG | NET | NETSTAT | PING | RASDIAL
Tools / Applications
CALC | EXPLORER | MS-PAINT | MRT | NOTEPAD | PERFMON | REGEDIT | REGSVR32 | RUNAS | SFC: System File Checker | WORDPAD
Miscellaneous
BREAK | CharMap | CHCP | REDIRECTION

EXAMPLES

Coding Examples
How to code certain features
Examples-1
Set Drive Letter | Validate Parameters | Empty Recycle Bin | Get/Set Time Variables | Set Day of Week Variable
Examples-2
Sync Two Folders | Set Remote PC to a Drive | Reboot Remote PC | Export a Registry Key | Import a Registry Key | Installed Software List in Excel | Read lines in a text file (.txt,.csv,.ini,etc.)
Examples-3
Read Records in a Text File | Conditionally Remove Text File Lines | Rename File Extensions | Call a Batch File | Execute a Program | Compile and Run Java | Alter the System Path | Get System Info

SHORT CUTS

Ctrl Panel Short Cuts
Accessibility Settings | Add/Remove Programs | Advanced tab of System Properties | Desktop Settings | Firewall Settings | MAC Addresses | IE Options | Regional Settings | Joystick Settings | Keyboard Settings | Mouse Settings | Modem Settings | ODBC Settings | Power Settings | Printers/Faxes | Scanner/Camera Settings | Security Center Dialog | Security Policy | Sound/Audio Settings | System Files Edit | System Properties | System Clock Dialog | Task Manager | Telephony Settings | User Accounts
MSC Short Cuts
Computer Mgmt | Disk Mgmt | Event Viewer | Device Manager | Defrag Disk Drives | Removable Storage Manager | Security Policy | Windows Services | Shared Folders
START Key Options
Break, Tab or Shift-Tab, D, E, F, L, M, R, U
Windows Shortcut Keys
Shortcut keys available in most Windows applications
IE Shortcuts
Shortcut keys for Internet Explorer
Win Explorer Shortcuts
Shortcut keys for Windows Explorer
Accessibility Keys
Accessibility Options keys
Create Desktop Shortcut
How to create a shortcut icon on the desktop

COMMANDS by NAME

To string more than one command together on the command line, separate each command with double ampersands (&&). Example: cls&&dir

Accessibility Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Accessibility options dialog: access.cpl
Advanced Tab
[Shortcut] Start up the Advanced tab of the System Properties dialog: sysdm.cpl,@0,3
Add/Remove Programs
[Shortcut] Start up Add/Remove Programs list of Control Panel: appwiz.cpl
ASSOC
Displays or modifies file extension associations
AT
Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer
ATTRIB
Displays or changes file attributes
BATCH PARAMS
Extract information about environment settings
BREAK
Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking
CACLS
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files
CALC
Startup the calculator program
CALL
Calls one batch program from another
CD
Displays the name of or changes the current directory
CharMap
Displays 240 characters that are available, and selectable, in the selected font
CHCP
Displays or sets the active code page number
CHDIR
Displays the name of or changes the current directory
CHKDSK
Checks a disk and displays a status report
CHKNTFS
Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time
CLS
Clears the screen
CMD
Starts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter
COLOR
Sets the default console foreground and background colors
COMP
Compares the contents of two files or sets of files
COMPACT
Displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions
Computer Mgmt
[Shortcut] Start up Computer Management dialog: compmgmt.msc
CONVERT
Converts FAT volumes to NTFS, he current drive cannot be converted
COPY
Copies one or more files to another location
DATE
Displays or sets the date
DEFRAG
Defragment a fragmented disk drive volume
DEL
Deletes one or more files
Desktop Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Desktop screen display options dialog: desk.cpl
Device Manager
[Shortcut] Start up the Device Manager dialog: devmgmt.msc
Defrag Disk Drives
[Shortcut] defrag dialog: dfrg.msc
DIR
Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory
DISKCOMP
Compares the contents of two floppy disks
DISKCOPY
Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another
Disk Mgmt
[Shortcut] Start up Disk Management dialog: diskmgmt.msc
DOSKEY
Edits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and creates macros
DRIVERQUERY
Displays a list of all installed device drivers and their properties
ECHO
Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off
ENDLOCAL
Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file
ERASE
Deletes one or more files (see DEL)
Event Viewer
[Shortcut] Start up Event Viewer dialog: eventvwr
EXIT
Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter)
EXPLORER
Start up Windows Explorer: explorer.exe (or explorer.exe /e, {path to open}
FC
Compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences between them
FILTERS
Transforms the input or output of other commands
FIND
[FILTER] Searches for a text string in a file or files
FINDSTR
Searches for strings in files
Firewall Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Firewall Settings dialog: firewall.cpl
FOR
Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files
FORMAT
Formats a disk for use with Windows
Shared Folders
[Shortcut] Open the Shared Folders dialog: fsmgmt.msc
FTP
Transfers files to/from a computer running an FTP server service
FTYPE
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations
MAC Addresses
[Shortcut] Shows the mac address(es) of your network adapter(s): getmac
GOTO
Directs the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line in a batch program
GRAFTABL
Enables Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode
HELP
Provides Help information for Windows commands
HOSTNAME
Display full name of the computer
IF
Performs conditional processing in batch programs
IE Options
[Shortcut] Start up the Internet options dialog: inetcpl.cpl
Regional Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Regional settings dialog: intl.cpl
IPCONFIG
Display TCP/IP configurations
Joystick Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Joystick settings dialog: joy.cpl
Keyboard Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Keyboard settings dialog: main.cpl keyboard
LABEL
Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk
Mouse Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Mouse settings dialog: main.cpl
MD
Creates a directory
MKDIR
Creates a directory (see MD)
MODE
Configures a system device
Modem Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Modem settings dialog: control modem
MORE
[FILTER] Displays output one screen at a time
MOVE
Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory
MRT
Startup Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool
MSCONFIG
System Configuration startup
MSG
Send a message to a user
MSTSC
Remote desktop connection
NBTSTAT
Displays NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocol statistics
NET
Network Services
NETSTAT
Displays active TCP connections and ports on which the computer is listening
NOTEPAD
Start up the Notepad editor, optionally with the given file name to edit
Removable Storage Manager
[Shortcut] Start up the Removable Storage Manager dialog: ntmsmgr.msc
ODBCAD32
[Shortcut] Start up ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog: odbcad32.exe
MS-PAIN
Start up the MS-PAINT graphics editor, optionally with the given file name to edit: mspaint x
PATH
Displays or sets a search path for executable files
PAUSE
Suspends processing of a batch file and displays a message
PERFMON
Open a Windows XP Performance console
PING
Use Echo Request messages to verify IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer
POPD
Restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD
Power Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Power options dialog: powercfg.cpl
PRINT
Prints a text file
Printers/Faxes
[Shortcut] Start up the Add/remove printers and faxes dialog: control printers
PROMPT
Changes the Windows command prompt
PUSHD
Saves the current directory then changes it
RASDIAL
Automate starting a network connection using a specific entry
RD
Removes a directory
RECOVER
Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk
REDIRECTION
Redirect input and output to someplace other than their defaults/standards
REG
Add, change and display registry subkey information/values in registry entries
REGEDIT
View/edit the Windows System Registry
REGSVR32
Registers .dll files as command components in the registry
REM
Records comments (remarks) in batch files or CONFIG.SYS
REN
Renames a file or files
RENAME
Renames a file or files (see REN)
REPLACE
Replaces files
RMDIR
Removes a directory (see RD)
RUNAS
Allows running tools/programs other than what the user is allowed
SCHTASKS
Manage Windows scheduled tasks using the command prompt
Security Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Local Security Policy dialog: secpol.msc
Windows Services
[Shortcut] Start up the Services Manager dialog: services.msc
SET
Displays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables
SETLOCAL
Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file
SFC: System File Checker
Start up the System File Checker to verify that the Windows files are valid
SHADOW
Monitor another Terminal Services session
SHIFT
Shifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch files
SHUTDOWN
Turn off or restart the local computer or a remote computer
SORT
[FILTER] Sorts input
Sound/Audio Devices
[Shortcut] Start up Volume, Sound and Audio Devices dialog: mmsys.cpl
START
Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command
Scanner/Camera Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Scanner and camera settings dialog: sticpl.cpl
SUBST
Associates a path with a drive letter
System Properties
[Shortcut] Start up the System Properties dialog: sysdm.cpl
Edit System Files
[Shortcut] Start up the edit of four system files: autoexec.bat, config.sys, win,ini, system.ini dialog: sysedit
SYSTEMINFO
Displays information about the computer
TASKKILL
End processes, applications and services running on local or remote computer
TASKLIST
Display applications and services running on local or remote computer
TASKMGR
[Shortcut] Start up the Task Manager dialog: taskmgr.exe
Telephony Settings
[Shortcut] Start up the Telephony settings dialog: telephon.cpl
TELNET
Communicate with a remote computer that is using telnet protocol
TIME
Displays or sets the system time
System Clock Dialog
[Shortcut] Start up the System clock dialog: timedate.cpl
TITLE
Sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session
TREE
Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path
TSCON
Attaches a user session to a terminal session. Permission must be granted
TSDISCON
Disconnects a terminal session
TSKILL
End a process
TYPE
Displays the contents of a text file
Users Accounts
[Shortcut] Start up Users Accounts dialog: control userpasswords2
VER
Displays the Windows version
VERIFY
Tells Windows to verify that the disk files are written correctly
VOL
Displays a disk volume label and serial number
WordPad
Start up the WordPad editor, optionally with the given file name to edit: write x
Security Center Dialog
[Shortcut] Security Center dialog: wscui.cpl
XCOPY
Copies files and directory trees

 
Accessibility Settings
This is a short cut to start up the ACCESSIBILITY Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
ACCESS.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Miscellaneous Windows Keys
These key combinations are available in Windows to reach certain Accessibility Options.

   
Sticky Keys
Tap SHIFT five times to toggle StickyKeys (Keyboard Accessibility Options) on and off. This provides a means of using SHIFT or ALT or CTRL but typing them before the accompanying key as opposed to simultaneously holding them both down.
Filter Keys
Press down and hold the right SHIFT key for eight seconds to toggle FilterKeys (Keyboard Accessibility Options) on and off. This tells the computer to ignore brief repeated keystrokes, mostly for people with hand tremors.
Toggle Keys
Press down and hold the NUM LOCK key for five seconds to toggle ToggleKeys (Keyboard Accessibility Options) on and off. This provides sound cues when pressing keys sch as NUM LOCK, CAPS LOCK and SCROLL LOCK.
Mouse Keys
Left ALT + left SHIFT + NUM LOCK to toggle MouseKeys (Mouse Accessibility Options) on and off. This allows the numeric keypad to be used (NUM LOCK must be ON) as the mouse were 2, 4, 6, 8 move the cursor down, left, up and right and where 1, 3, 7, 9 move the cursor in a diagonal direction and where 5 is a left mouse click and where the plus sign is for double click.
Contrast Keys
Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCREEN to toggle High Contrast (Display Accessibility Options) on and off
Accessibilities
Start key + U to start up the Utility Manager, from there select any of Narrator (a basic text-to-speech translator), Magnifier (make larger the screen at mouse pointer) and On-Screen Keyboard (clicking keys 'types' in applications that accept keystrokes)

 
Add/Remove Programs
This is a short cut to start up the ADD/REMOVE PROGRAMS portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
APPWIZ.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Advanced tab of System Properties
This is a short cut to start up the System Properties dialog and go to the Advanced tab.
This is the tab that has the button 'Environment Variables' which is where one would go
to modify the system PATH.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
'sysdm.cpl,@0,3' and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
ALT-TAB Keys
Toggle through the applications open on the Task Bar

Holding down the ALT key then continually striking the TAB key will popup a small box
that contains an icon for each of the applications that are open on the Task Bar. The
description of the application currently in focus (denoted by a box drawn around the
icon) will display at the bottom of the popup.

The combination of the SHIFT Key and the TAB Key will make the box move in the
opposite direction.

 
AT
Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer at a specified time and date.

   at [\\ComputerName] [{[ID] [/delete]|/delete [/yes]}]

   at [[\\ComputerName] hours:minutes [/interactive]
      [{/every:date[,...]|/next:date[,...]}] command]

   Parameters:

   - \\ComputerName
Specifies a remote computer. If this parameter is omitted, at schedules the commands and programs on the local computer. - ID -- Specifies the identification number assigned to a scheduled command. - /delete -- Cancels a scheduled command. If ID is omitted, all of the scheduled commands on the computer are canceled. - /yes -- Answers yes to all queries from the system when deleting scheduled events. - hours:minutes -- Specifies the time to start running the command. Time is expressed as hours:minutes in 24-hour notation (i.e. 00:00 [midnight] through 23:59). - /interactive -- Allows command to interact with the desktop of the user who is logged on at the time command runs. - /every: -- Runs command on every specified day or days of the week or month (for example, every Thursday, or the third day of every month). - date -- Specifies the date to start running the command. One or more days of the week (i.e. type M,T,W,Th,F,S,Su) or one or more days of the month (i.e. type 1 1 through 31) can be specified. Separate multiple date entries with commas. If the dateis omitted, at uses the current day of the month. - /next: -- Runs command on the next occurrence of the day (for example, next Thursday). - command -- Specifies the Windows command, program (i.e. .exe or .com file) or batch program (i.e. .bat or .cmd file) to run. When the command requires a path as \an argument, use the absolute path (i.e. the entire path beginning with the drive letter). If the command is on a remote computer, specify Universal Naming Convention (UNC) notation for the server and share name, rather than a remote drive letter. - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt. Remarks: - Used without parameters, it lists scheduled commands. - This command can be used only when the Schedule service is running. - Schtasks is a more powerful superset command-line scheduling tool and includes all the functionality found in the at command-line utility. Use schtasks instead of at for all command-line scheduling tasks. For more information about schtasks, see Related Topics. Using at: ========= - At can only be used by a member of the local Administrators group. Loading Cmd.exe: - At does not automatically load Cmd.exe, the command interpreter, before running commands. If an executable (.exe) file is not being run then the beginning of the command must explicitly load Cmd.exe as follows: cmd /c dir > c:\test.out Viewing scheduled commands: =========================== When using at without command-line options, scheduled tasks appear in a table formatted similar to the following: Status ID Day Time Command Line OK 1 Each F 4:30 PM net send group leads status due OK 2 Each M 12:00 AM chkstor > check.file OK 3 Each F 11:59 PM backup2.bat Including identification number (ID): ===================================== - When including identification number (ID) with at at a command prompt, information for a single entry appears in a format similar to the following: Task ID: 1 Status: OK Schedule: Each F Time of Day: 4:30 PM Command: net send group leads status due After scheduling a command with at, especially a command that has command-line options, check that the command syntax is correct by typing at without command- line options. If the information in the Command Line column is incorrect, delete the command and retype it. If it is still incorrect, retype the command with fewer command-line options. Viewing results: ================ - Commands scheduled with at run as background processes. Output is not displayed on the computer screen. To redirect output to a file, use the redirection symbol (>). If redirecting output to a file, use the escape symbol (^) before the redirection symbol, whether using at at the command line or in a batch file. For example, to redirect output to Output.text, type: at 14:45 c:\test.bat ^>c:\output.txt - The current directory for the executing command is the systemroot folder. Changing system time: ===================== - If change the system time at a computer after scheduling a command to run with at, synchronize the at scheduler with the revised system time by typing at without command-line options. Storing commands: ================= - Scheduled commands are stored in the registry. As a result, scheduled tasks are retained when restarting the Schedule service. Connecting to network drives: ============================= - Do not use a redirected drive for scheduled jobs that access the network. The Schedule service might not be able to access the redirected drive, or the redirected drive might not be present if a different user is logged on at the time the scheduled task runs. Instead, use UNC paths for scheduled jobs. For example: at 1:00pm my_backup \\server\share - Do not use the following syntax, where x: is a connection made by the user: at 1:00pm my_backup x: - If scheduling an at command that uses a drive letter to connect to a shared directory, include an at command to disconnect the drive when finished using the drive. If the drive is not disconnected, the assigned drive letter is not available at the command prompt. Examples: - To display a list of commands scheduled on the Marketing server, type: at \\marketing - To learn more about a command with the identification number 3 on the Corp server, type: at \\corp 3 - To schedule a net share command to run on the Corp server at 8:00 A.M. and redirect the listing to the Maintenance server, in the Reports shared directory, and the Corp.txt file, type: at \\corp 08:00 cmd /c "net share reports=d:\marketing\reports >> \\maintenance\reports\corp.txt" - To back up the hard drive of the Marketing server to a tape drive at midnight every five days, create a batch program called Archive.cmd, which contains the backup commands, and then schedule the batch program to run, type: at \\marketing 00:00 /every:5,10,15,20,25,30 archive - To cancel all commands scheduled on the current server, clear the at schedule information as follows: at /delete - To run a command that is not an executable (i.e. .exe) file, precede the command with cmd /c to load Cmd.exe as follows: cmd /c dir > c:\test.out

 
ATTRIB
Displays, sets, or removes the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes
assigned to files or directories.

attrib [{+r|-r}] [{+a|-a}] [{+s|-s}] [{+h|-h}] [[Drive:][Path] FileName] [/s[/d]]

   Parameters:

   - +r -- Sets the read-only file attribute.
   - -r -- Clears the read-only file attribute.
   - +a -- Sets the archive file attribute.
   - -a -- Clears the archive file attribute.
   - +s -- Sets the system file attribute.
   - -s -- Clears the system file attribute.
   - +h -- Sets the hidden file attribute.
   - -h -- Clears the hidden file attribute.
   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the directory,
     file, or set of files to display or change attributes. Wildcard characters
     (i.e. ? and *) can be used in the FileName parameter to display or change
     the attributes for a group of files.
   - /s -- Applies attrib and any command-line options to matching files in the
     current directory and all of its subdirectories.
   - /d -- Applies attrib and any command-line options to directories.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   - Used without parameters, attrib displays attributes of all files in the
     current directory.

   Working with groups of files:
   =============================
   Wildcard characters (i.e. ? and *) can be used with the FileName parameter to
   display or change the attributes for a group of files. File with the system or
   hidden attribute set must have the attributes cleared before changing any other
   attributes for that file.

   Using the archive attribute:
   ============================
   - The archive attribute (i.e. +a) marks files that have changed since the last
     time they were backed up. The xcopy command uses archive attributes. For more
     information about archive attributes and xcopy, see Related Topics.

   - The attrib command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Examples:

   - To display the attributes of a file named News86 located on the current drive, type:

         attrib news86

   - To assign the read-only attribute to the file named Report.txt, type:

         attrib +r report.txt

   - To remove the read-only attribute from files in the \Public\Jones directory on a
     disk in drive B and from files in any subdirectories of \Public\Jones, type:

         attrib -r b:\public\jones\*.* /s

   - Consider a scenario to give an associate a disk containing all files in the default
     directory on a disk in drive A, except files with the .bak extension. Because xcopy
     can be used to copy only those files marked with the archive attribute, set the
     archive attribute for those files to be copied. First, set the archive attribute for
     all files on drive A. Second, clear the archive attribute for those files with the
     .bak extension. For example, type:

         attrib +a a:*.* attrib -a a:*.bak

   - Next, use xcopy to copy the files from the disk in drive A to the disk in drive B.
     The /a command-line option in the following command causes xcopy to copy only those
     files marked with the archive attribute. For example, type:

         xcopy a: b: /a

   - To have xcopy clear each file's archive attribute after it copies the files, use
     the /m command-line option instead of /a. For example, type:

         xcopy a: b: /m

 
BATCH PARAMETERS
Batch parameters can be used anywhere within a batch file to extract information
about environment settings.

Cmd.exe provides the batch parameter expansion variables %0 through %9. When batch
parameters are used in a batch file, %0 is replaced by the batch file name, and %1
through %9 are replaced by the corresponding arguments typed at the command line.
To access arguments beyond %9, use the shift command. For more information about
the shift command, see Shift The %* batch parameter is a wildcard reference to all
the arguments, not including %0, that are passed to the batch file.

For example, to copy the contents from Folder1 to Folder2, where %1 is replaced by
the value Folder1 and %2 is replaced by the value Folder2, type the following in a
batch file called Mybatch.bat:

   xcopy %1\*.* %2

To run the file, type:  mybatch.bat C:\folder1 D:\folder2

This has the same effect as typing the following in the batch file:

   xcopy C:\folder1 \*.* D:\folder2

Modifiers can be used with batch parameters. Modifiers use current drive and directory
information to expand the batch parameter as a partial or complete file or directory
name. To use a modifier, type the percent (%) character followed by a tilde (~)
character, and then type the appropriate modifier (i.e. %~modifier).

The following table lists the modifiers available to use in expansion.
   Modifier - Description
   %~1  -  Expands %1 and removes any surrounding quotation marks ("").
   %~f1 -  Expands %1 to a fully qualified path name.
   %~d1 -  Expands %1 to a drive letter.
   %~p1 -  Expands %1 to a path.
   %~n1 -  Expands %1 to a file name.
   %~x1 -  Expands %1 to a file extension.
   %~s1 -  Expanded path contains short names only.
   %~a1 -  Expands %1 to file attributes.
   %~t1 -  Expands %1 to date and time of file.
   %~z1 -  Expands %1 to size of file.
   %~$PATH:1 - Searches the directories listed in the PATH environment variable
               and expands %1 to the fully qualified name of the first one found.
               If the environment variable name is not defined or the file is not
               found, this modifier expands to the empty string.

The following table lists possible combinations of modifiers and qualifiers that
can be used to get compound results.
   Modifier - Description
   %~dp1 - Expands %1 to a drive letter and path.
   %~nx1 - Expands %1 to a file name and extension.
   %~dp$PATH:1 - Searches the directories listed in the PATH environment variable for
                 %1 and expands to the drive letter and path of the first one found.
   %~ftza1 - Expands %1 to a dir-like output line.

Note: In the above examples, %1 and PATH can be replaced with other batch parameter values.

The %* modifier is a unique modifier that represents all arguments passed in a batch file.
This modifier cannot be used in combination with the %~ modifier. The %~ syntax must be
terminated by a valid argument value.

Batch parameters cannot be manipulated in the same manner as manipulating environment
variables. Substrings values cannot be searched and replaced or examineed. However,
a parameter can be assigned to an environment variable which can then be manipulated.

   Examples:

   If "%~1"=="" GoTo TheParamIsEmpty
   echo param-1 value is %~1
   GoTo ContinueHere
   TheParamIsEmpty:
   echo param-1 is empty
   ContinueHere:
   If "%~2"=="Update" GoTo UpdateData
   GoTo DoReadOnly
   UpdateData:
   echo ready to update data
   DoReadOnly:


 
BREAK
Sets or Clears Extended CTRL+C checking on DOS system

This is present for Compatibility with DOS systems.
It has no effect under Windows XP.

If Command Extensions are enabled, and running on the Windows XP
platform, then the BREAK command will enter a hard coded breakpoint
if being debugged by a debugger.

 
CACLS
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files

   cacls FileName [/t] [/e] [/c] [/g User:permission] [/r User [...]] [/p User:permission
         [...]] [/d User [...]]

   Parameters:

   - FileName --  Required. Displays DACLs of specified files.
   - /t --  Changes DACLs of specified files in the current directory and all subdirectories.
   - /e --  Edits a DACL instead of replacing it.
   - /c --  Continues to change DACLs, ignoring errors.
   - /g User:permission --  Grants access rights to the specified user. The following table
                            lists valid values for permission.

      Value - Description

      n - None
      r - Read
      w - Write
      c - Change (Write)
      f - Full Control

   - /r User --  Revokes access rights for the specified user.
   - /p User:permission --  Replaces access rights for the specified user. The following table
                            lists valid values for permission.

      Value - Description

      n - None
      r - Read
      w - Write
      c - Change (Write)
      f - Full Control

   - /d User --  Denies access for the specified user.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Use the following table to interpret the results.

      Output - ACE applies to

      OI - This folder and files
      CI - This folder and subfolders
      IO - The ACE does not apply to the current file/directory.
      No output message - This folder only
      (IO)(CI) - This folder, subfolders and files
      (OI)(CI)(IO) - Subfolders and files only
      (CI)(IO) - Subfolders only
      (OI)(IO) - Files only

   Wildcards (i.e., ? and *) can be used to specify multiple files.

   More than one user can be specified.

 
CALL
Calls one batch program from another

  call [[Drive:][Path] FileName [BatchParameters]] [:label [arguments]]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the batch
                                program to call. The FileName parameter must
                                have a .bat or .cmd extension.
   - BatchParameters -- Specifies any command-line information required by
                        the batch program, including command-line options,
                        file names, batch parameters (i.e. %0 through %9),
                        or variables (for example, %baud%).
   - :label -- Specifies the label to which the batch program control should
               jump. By using call with this parameter, a new batch file context
               is created and control is passed to the statement after the
               specified label. The first time the end of the batch file is
               encountered (i.e. after jumping to the label), control
               returns to the statement after the call statement. The second
               time the end of the batch file is encountered, the batch script
               is exited. For a description of the goto :eof extension that
               returns from (i.e. out of) a batch script, see Related Topics.
   - arguments -- Specifies any command-line information to pass to the new
                  instance of the batch program that begins at :label, including
                  command-line options, file names, batch parameters (i.e. %1
                  through %9), or variables (for example, %baud%).
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  Batch parameters can contain any information that is passed to a batch program,
  including command-line options, file names, batch parameters (i.e. %0 through %9)
  and variables (for example, %baud%). For more information about batch parameters,
  see Related Topics.

  Do not use pipes and redirection symbols with call.

  A batch program can call itself, however, an exit condition must be provided.
  Otherwise, the parent and child batch programs can loop endlessly.

  With command extensions enabled (i.e. the default), call accepts a label
  as the target of the call. The correct syntax is as follows:

     call :label arguments

  In addition, expansion of batch script argument references (%0, %1,
  etc.) have been changed as follows:

    %* in a batch script refers to all the arguments (e.g. %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 ...)

    Substitution of batch parameters (%n) has been enhanced. Use the
    following optional syntax:

        %~1         - expands %1 removing any surrounding quotes (")
        %~f1        - expands %1 to a fully qualified path name
        %~d1        - expands %1 to a drive letter only
        %~p1        - expands %1 to a path only
        %~n1        - expands %1 to a file name only
        %~x1        - expands %1 to a file extension only
        %~s1        - expanded path contains short names only
        %~a1        - expands %1 to file attributes
        %~t1        - expands %1 to date/time of file
        %~z1        - expands %1 to size of file
        %~$PATH:1   - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable and expands %1 to the fully
                       qualified name of the first one found. If the
                       environment variable name is not defined or the
                       file is not found by the search, then this
                       modifier expands to the empty string

    The modifiers can be combined to get compound results:

        %~dp1       - expands %1 to a drive letter and path only
        %~nx1       - expands %1 to a file name and extension only
        %~dp$PATH:1 - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable for %1 and expands to the
                       drive letter and path of the first one found.
        %~ftza1     - expands %1 to a DIR like output line

    In the above examples %1 and PATH can be replaced by other
    valid values. The %~ syntax is terminated by a valid argument
    number. The %~ modifiers may not be used with %*

  For more information about enabling and disabling command extensions, see cmd
  in Related Topics.

  Examples:

  - To run the Checknew.bat program from another batch program, type the following
    command in the parent batch program:

       call checknew

  - If the parent batch program accepts two batch parameters and those parameters
    need to be passed to Checknew.bat, use the following command in the parent
    batch program:

       call checknew %1 %2

 
CD
Displays the name of, or changes the, current directory.

   cd [[/d] [Drive:][Path] [..]] [[/d] [Drive:][Path] [..]]

   Parameters:

   - /d -- Changes the current drive or the current directory for a drive.
   - [drive:][Path] -- Specifies the drive (i.e. if it is different from
     the current drive) and directory to which to change.
   - [..] -- Specifies to change to the parent folder.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used with only a drive letter (for example, cd C:), cd displays the
   names of the current drive and folder. Used without parameters, cd
   displays the current drive and directory.

   Working with command extensions:
   ================================
   With command extensions enabled (i.e. the default), the current
   directory path matches the folder names exactly as they appear on the
   hard drive, using the same uppercase or lowercase folder-name format.
   For example, if the folder on the hard drive is called C:\Temp,
   CD C:\TEMP sets the current directory to C:\Temp to match the
   folder-name format of the folder on the hard drive.

   To disable command extensions for a particular process, type:

      cmd e:off

   When command extensions are disabled, cd does not treat white spaces
   as delimiters. As a result, it is possible to change to a subdirectory
   name that contains a white space without having to surround [Path] in
   quotation marks. For example, the following path changes to the
   \Start menu subdirectory:

      cd \winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu

   For more information about enabling and disabling command extensions,
   see cmd in Related Topics.

   Changing to the root directory:
   ===============================
   The root directory is the top of the directory hierarchy for a drive.
   To return to the root directory, type:

      cd\

   Changing the default directory on one drive from another drive:
   ===============================================================

   To change the default directory on a drive different from the current
   one, type one of the following:

      cd [Drive:\[directory]]

   To verify the change to the directory, type one of the following:

      cd [Drive:]

   The cd command, with different parameters, is available from the
   Recovery Console.

   Examples:

   When used with a drive name, cd displays the current directory for that drive.
   For example, cd c: at the C:\Temp directory prompt, the following appears:

      C:\Temp

   To change the current directory to a directory named Reports, type one of the
   following commands:

      cd \reports

   To change the current directory to a subdirectory \Specials\Sponsors, type:

      cd \specials\sponsors

   Or, if the current directory is \Specials, type the following command to
   change to the \Specials\Sponsors subdirectory:

      cd sponsors

   To change from a subdirectory to its parent directory, type:

      cd ..

   To display the name of the current directory, use cd or cd without a parameter.
   For example, if the current directory is \Public\Jones on drive B, typing cd
   the following appears:

      B:\Public\Jones

   If currently on drive D and want to copy all files in the \Public\Jones and
   \Public\Lewis directories on drive C to the root directory on drive D, type:

      cd c:\public\jones

   copy c:*.* d:\

      cd c:\public\lewis
      copy c:*.* d:\

   To copy all files in the \Public\Jones and \Public\Lewis directories to the
   current location on drive D, type:

      cd c:\public\jones
      copy c:*.* d:
      cd c:\public\lewis
      copy c:*.* d:

 
CharMap
Displays a grid of 240 characters for the selected font.

   charmap

   Parameters:

   - None

   Remarks:

   Any character in the grid can be selected and optionally selected then copied (into the
   Windows clipboard) then pasted into any other application that accepts character entry.

   The font can be changed by selecting a different one in the drop down list at the top.
   When the font is changed, the characters in the grid take on the appearance of the
   newly selected font.

 
CHCP
Displays the number of the active console code page, or changes the console's active console
code page.

   chcp [nnn]

   Parameters:

   - nnn --  Specifies the code page. The following table lists each code page supported and
             its country/region or language:

      Code page - Country/region or language

      437 - United States
      850 - Multilingual (Latin I)
      852 - Slavic (Latin II)
      855 - Cyrillic (Russian)
      857 - Turkish
      860 - Portuguese
      861 - Icelandic
      863 - Canadian-French
      865 - Nordic
      866 - Russian
      869 - Modern Greek

   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, chcp displays the number of the active console code pages.

   Only the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) code page installed with Windows XP appears
   correctly in a command prompt window that uses Raster fonts. Other code pages appear
   correctly in full-screen mode or command prompt windows that use TrueType fonts.

   Code pages do not need to be prepared as they do in MS-DOS.

   Programs that start after they are assigned a new code page use the new code page, however,
   programs (except Cmd.exe) that were started before assigning the new code page use the
   original code page.

   Examples:

   To view the active code page setting, type:

      chcp

   A message similar to the following appears:

      Active code page: 437

   To change the active code page to 850 (Multilingual), type:

      chcp 850

   If the specified code page is invalid, the following error message appears:

      Invalid code page

 
CHDIR
Displays the name of, or changes the current, directory.

See CD

 
CHKDSK
Checks a disk and displays a status report.

   chkdsk [volume:][[Path] FileName] [/f] [/v] [/r] [/x] [/i] [/c] [/l[:size]]

   Parameters:

   - volume: -- Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point,
                or volume name.
   - [Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of a file or set of files
                        that chkdsk is to check for fragmentation. Wildcard
                        characters (i.e. * and ?) can be used to specify multiple files.
   - /f -- Fixes errors on the disk. The disk must be locked. If chkdsk cannot lock
           the drive, a message appears asking if to check the drive the next time the
           computer is restarted.
   - /v -- Displays the name of each file in every directory as the disk is checked.
   - /r -- Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. The disk must be
           locked.
   - /x -- Use with NTFS only. Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary.
           All open handles to the drive are invalidated. /x also includes the
           functionality of /f.
   - /i -- Use with NTFS only. Performs a less vigorous check of index entries,
           reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.
   - /c -- Use with NTFS only. Skips the checking of cycles within the folder
           structure, reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.
   - /l[:size] -- Use with NTFS only. Changes the log file size to the size specified.
                  If the size parameter is omitted, /l displays the current size.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Chkdsk also lists and corrects errors on the disk. Used without parameters, chkdsk
   displays the status of the disk in the current drive.

   Running chkdsk
   ==============
   Running chkdsk on a fixed disk must be done by a member of the Administrators group.

   Checking a locked drive at restart:
   ===================================
   To have chkdsk correct disk errors, no files on the drive can be open. If files are
   open, the following error message appears:

      Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like
      to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)

   If choose to check the drive the next time the computer os restarted, chkdsk checks
   the drive and corrects errors automatically when the computer is restarted. If the
   drive partition is a boot partition, chkdsk automatically restarts the computer
   after it checks the drive.

   Reporting disk errors:
   ======================
   Chkdsk examines disk space and disk use for the file allocation table (FAT) and NTFS
   file systems. Chkdsk provides information specific to each file system in a status
   report. The status report shows errors found in the file system. Running chkdsk
   without the /f command-line option on an active partition might report spurious
   errors because it cannot lock the drive. Use chkdsk on occasion to check each disk
   for errors.

   Fixing disk errors:
   ===================
   Chkdsk corrects disk errors only if the /f command-line option is specified. Chkdsk
   must be able to lock the drive to correct errors. Because repairs usually change a
   disk's file allocation table and sometimes cause a loss of data, chkdsk sends a
   confirmation message similar to the following:

      10 lost allocation units found in 3 chains.
      Convert lost chains to files?

   If press Y, Windows saves each lost chain in the root directory as a file with a
   name in the format Filennnn.chk. When chkdsk finishes, these files can be checked
   to see if they contain any needed data. If press N, Windows fixes the disk, but it
   does not save the contents of the lost allocation units.

   If the /f command-line option is not used, chkdsk sends a message if a file needs
   to be fixed, but it does not fix any errors.

   If chkdsk /f is used on a very large disk (for example, 70 gigabytes) or a disk
   with a very large number of files (for example, millions of files), chkdsk might
   take a long time (for example, over several days) to complete. The computer is
   not available during this time because chkdsk does not relinquish control until
   it is finished.

   Checking a FAT disk:
   ====================
   Windows displays chkdsk status reports for a FAT (File Allocation System, use
   before before Windows 2000) disk in the following format:

      Volume Serial Number is B1AF-AFBF
      72214528 bytes total disk space
      73728 bytes in 3 hidden files
      30720 bytes in 12 directories
      11493376 bytes in 386 user files
      61440 bytes in bad sectors
      60555264 bytes available on disk
      2048 bytes in each allocation unit
      35261 total allocation units on disk
      29568 available allocation units on disk

   Checking an NTFS disk:
   ======================
   Windows displays chkdsk status reports for an NTFS (New Technology File System,
   for Windows NT and Windows 2000 and after) disk in the following format:

      The type of the file system is NTFS.
      CHKDSK is verifying files...
      File verification completed.
      CHKDSK is verifying indexes...
      Index verification completed.
      CHKDSK is verifying security descriptors...
      Security descriptor verification completed.
      12372 kilobytes total disk space.
      3 kilobytes in 1 user files.
      2 kilobytes in 1 indexes.
      4217 kilobytes in use by the system.
      8150 kilobytes available on disk.
      512 bytes in each allocation unit.
      24745 total allocation units on disk.
      16301 allocation units available on disk.

   Using chkdsk with open files:
   =============================
   If the /f command-line option isspecified, chkdsk sends an error message if there
   are open files on the disk. If the /f command-line option is not specified and
   open files exist, chkdsk might report lost allocation units on the disk. This
   could happen if open files have not yet been recorded in the file allocation table.
   If chkdsk reports the loss of a large number of allocation units, consider
   repairing the disk.

   Finding physical disk errors:
   =============================
   Use the /r command-line option to find physical disk errors in the file system.
   For information about recovering physically damaged files with recover,
   see Related Topics.

   Reporting bad disk sectors:
   ===========================
   Bad sectors reported by chkdsk were marked as bad when the disk was first prepared
   for operation. They pose no danger.

   Understanding exit codes:
   =========================
   The following table lists the exit codes that chkdsk reports after it has finished.
      Exit code - Description

      0 - No errors were found.
      1 - Errors were found and fixed.
      2 - Disk cleanup, such as garbage collection, was performed, or cleanup was not
      performed because /f was not specified.
      3 - Could not check the disk, errors could not be fixed, or errors were not
      fixed because /f was not specified.

   The chkdsk command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery
   Console.

   Examples:

   To check the disk in drive D and have Windows fix errors, type:

      chkdsk d: /f

   If it encounters errors, chkdsk pauses and displays messages. Chkdsk finishes by
   displaying a report that lists the status of the disk. Files on the specified
   drive cannot be opened until chkdsk finishes.

   To check all of files on a FAT disk in the current directory for noncontiguous
   blocks, type:

      chkdsk *.*

   Chkdsk displays a status report, and then lists the files matching the file
   specification that have noncontiguous blocks.

 
CHKNTFS
Displays or specifies whether automatic system checking is scheduled to be run on a FAT, FAT32,
or NTFS volume when the computer is started.

   chkntfs volume: [...]
   chkntfs [/d]
   chkntfs [/t[:time]]
   chkntfs [/x volume: [...]]
   chkntfs [/c volume: [...]]

   Parameters:

   - volume: [...] --  Required. Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point,
                       or volume name. Displays a message that identifies the file system of the
                       specified volume. If automatic file checking is scheduled to be run, this
                       parameter displays a message indicating whether the volume has been
                       corrupted, which requires chkdsk to be run.
   - /d --  Restores all chkntfs default settings, except the countdown time for automatic file
            checking. Default behavior is to check all volumes when the computer is started.
   - /t[:time] --  Changes the Autochk.exe initiation countdown time to the specified amount of
                   time entered in seconds. If :time is not specified then /t displays the
                   current countdown time.
   - /x volume: [...] --  Excludes the specified volume from being checked when the computer
                          starts, even if the volume is marked as requiring chkdsk.
   - /c volume: [...] --  Schedules the specified volume to be checked when the computer starts.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   chkntfs can only be run by a member of the Administrators group.

   If no parameters are specified, CHKNTFS will display if the specified drive is dirty or
   scheduled to be checked on next reboot.

   Although the Autochk.exe initiation countdown time can be set to zero, a potentially time-
   consuming automatic file check cannot be cancelled if it is set to zero.

   Examples:

   To display the Autochk.exe initiation countdown time, type:

      chkntfs /t

   When changing the Autochk.exe initiation countdown time, type the time in seconds. For
   example, to change the countdown time to 30 seconds, type:

      chkntfs /t:30

   The /x command-line option is not accumulative. If it is typed more than once, the most
   recent entry overrides the previous entry. To exclude multiple volumes, list them all in
   one command. For example, to exclude both the E: and F: volumes, type:

      chkntfs /x e: f:

   To exclude the F: volume only, type:

      chkntfs /x e:

      chkntfs /x f:

   The /c command-line option is accumulative. To check the specified volume only, reset the
   defaults to clear any previous commands, exclude all volumes from being checked, and then
   schedule automatic file checking on the desired volume.

   For example, to schedule automatic file checking on the D: volume only, type:

      chkntfs /d

      chkntfs /x c: d: e:

      chkntfs /c d:

 
CLS
Clears the screen.

   CLS

 
CMD
Starts a new instance of the command interpreter, Cmd.exe. Used without parameters,
cmd displays Windows XP version and copyright information.

   cmd [[{/c|/k}] [/s] [/q] [/d] [{/a|/u}] [/t:fg] [/e:{on|off}] [/f:{on|off}]
       [/v:{on|off}] string]

   Parameters:

   - /c -- Carries out the command specified by string and then stops.
   - /r -- Carries out the command specified by string and then stops.
   - /k -- Carries out the command specified by string and continues.
   - /s -- Modifies the treatment of string after /c or /k.
   - /q -- Turns the echo off.
   - /d -- Disables execution of AutoRun commands.
   - /a -- Creates American National Standards Institute (ANSI) output.
   - /u -- Creates Unicode output.
   - /t:fg -- Sets the foreground f and background g colors. The following tables
           lists valid hexadecimal digits available to use as the values for f and g.

         Value - Color            Value - Color
         0 - Black                8 - Gray
         1 - Blue                 9 - Light blue
         2 - Green                A - Light green
         3 - Aqua                 B - Light aqua
         4 - Red                  C - Light red
         5 - Purple               D - Light purple
         6 - Yellow               E - Light yellow
         7 - White                F - Bright white

   - /e:on -- Enables command extensions.
   - /e:off -- Disables commands extensions.
   - /x     -- Enables command extensions.
   - /y -- Disables commands extensions.
   - /f:on -- Enables file and directory name completion.
   - /f:off -- Disables file and directory name completion.
   - /v:on -- Enables delayed environment variable expansion.
   - /v:off -- Disables delayed environment variable expansion.
   - string -- Specifies the command to carry out.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   ALT plus ENTER keys will toggle the command prompt between full-screen mode and
   back to its default size mode.

   Using multiple commands (command chaining):
   ===========================================
   Multiple commands are separated by the command separator && for string, but they
   must enclose them in quotation marks (for example, "command&&command&&command").

   Processing quotation marks:
   ===========================
   If specify /c or /k, cmd processes the remainder of string and quotation marks are
   preserved only if all of the following conditions are met:

      - You do not use /s.
      - Use exactly one set of quotation marks.
      - Do not use any special characters within the quotation marks (ex.: &<>( ) @ ^ |).
      - Use one or more white-space characters within the quotation marks.
      - The string within quotation marks is the name of an executable file.

   If the previous conditions are not met, string is processed by examining the first
   character to verify whether or not it is an opening quotation mark. If the first
   character is an opening quotation mark, it is stripped along with the closing
   quotation mark. Any text following the closing quotation marks is preserved.


   Or, to put it another way, if /C or /K is specified, then the remainder of the
   command line after the switch is processed as a command line, where the following
   logic is used to process quote (") characters:

   1. If all of the following conditions are met, then quote characters
      on the command line are preserved:

      - no /S switch
      - exactly two quote characters
      - no special characters between the two quote characters,
        where special is one of: &<>()@^|
      - there are one or more whitespace characters between the
        the two quote characters
      - the string between the two quote characters is the name
        of an executable file.

   2. Otherwise, old behavior is to see if the first character is
      a quote character and if so, strip the leading character and
      remove the last quote character on the command line, preserving
      any text after the last quote character.

   Executing registry subkeys:
   ===========================
   If /d is not specified in string, Cmd.exe looks for the following registry subkeys:

      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\AutoRun\REG_SZ
      HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\AutoRun REG_EXPAND_SZ

   If either one or both registry subkeys are present, they are executed before all
   other variables.

   Caution:  Incorrectly editing the registry may severely damage the system. Before
   making changes to the registry, back up any valued data on the computer.

   Enabling and disabling command extensions:
   ==========================================
   Command extensions are enabled by default in Windows XP. They can be disabled for
   a particular process by using /e:off. Extensions can be enabled or disabled for
   all cmd command-line options on a computer or user session by setting the following
   REG_DWORD values:

   HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\EnableExtensions\REG_DWORD

   HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\EnableExtensions\REG_DWORD

   Set the REG_DWORD value to either 01 (i.e. enabled) or 00 (i.e. disabled) in the
   registry by using Regedit.exe. User-specified settings take precedence over computer
   settings, and command-line options take precedence over registry settings.

   Caution:  Incorrectly editing the registry may severely damage the system. Before
   making changes to the registry, back up any valued data on the computer.

   When enabling command extensions, the following commands are affected:

      assoc              if
      call               md   (mkdir)
      cd   (chdir)       popd
      color              prompt
      del  (erase)       pushd
      endlocal           set
      for                setlocal
      ftype              shift
      goto               start (also includes changes to external command invocation)

   For more information about these commands, see Related Topics.

   Enabling delayed environment variable expansion:
   ================================================
   If delayed environment variable expansion is enabled, use the exclamation character
   to substitute the value of an environment variable at run time.

   Enabling file and directory name completion:
   ============================================
   File and directory name completion is not enabled by default. Enable or disable file
   name completion for a particular process of the cmd command with /f:{on|off}. Enable
   or disable file and directory name completion for all processes of the cmd command on
   a computer or user logon session by setting the following REG_DWORD values:

      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\CompletionChar\REG_DWORD
      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\PathCompletionChar\REG_DWORD
      HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\CompletionChar\REG_DWORD
      HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\PathCompletionChar\REG_DWORD

   To set the REG_DWORD value, run Regedit.exe and use the hexadecimal value of a control
   character for a particular function (for example, 09 is TAB and 008 is BACKSPACE).
   User-specified settings take precedence over computer settings, and command-line
   options take precedence over registry settings.

   Caution:  Incorrectly editing the registry may severely damage the system. Before
   making changes to the registry, back up any valued data on the computer.

   If enable file and directory name completion by using /f:on, use CTRL+D for directory
   name completion and CTRL+F for file name completion. To disable a particular completion
   character in the registry, use the value for white space [020] because it is not a
   valid control character.

   When press CTRL+D or CTRL+F, cmd processes file and directory name completion. These
   key combination functions append a wildcard character to string (i.e. if one is not
   present), build a list of paths that match, and then display the first matching path.
   If none of the paths match, the file and directory name completion function beeps and
   does not change the display. To move through the list of matching paths, press CTRL+D
   or CTRL+F repeatedly. To move through the list backwards, press the SHIFT key and
   CTRL+D or CTRL+F simultaneously. To discard the saved list of matching paths and
   generate a new list, edit string and press CTRL+D or CTRL+F. If switch between CTRL+D
   and CTRL+F, the saved list of matching paths is discarded and a new list is generated.
   The only difference between the key combinations CTRL+D and CTRL+F is that CTRL+D only
   matches directory names and CTRL+F matches both file and directory names. If use file
   and directory name completion on any of the built-in directory commands (i.e. CD, MD,
   or RD), directory completion is assumed.

   File and directory name completion correctly processes file names that contain
   whitespace or special characters if place quotation marks around the matching path.

   The following special characters require quotation marks:

      & < > [ ] { } ^ = ; ! ' + , ` ~ [white space]

   If the supplied information contains spaces, use quotation marks around the text
   (ex. "Computer Name").

   If process file and directory name completion from within string, any part of the
   [Path] to the right of the cursor is discarded (i.e. at the point in string where
   the completion was processed).

 
COLOR
Changes the Command Prompt window foreground and background colors for the current session.

   color [fb]

   Parameters:

   - fb --  Sets the foreground f and background g colors. The following tables lists valid
            hexadecimal digits that can be used as the values for f and g.

      Value - Color

         0 - Black
         1 - Blue
         2 - Green
         3 - Aqua
         4 - Red
         5 - Purple
         6 - Yellow
         7 - White
         8 - Gray
         9 - Light blue
         A - Light green
         B - Light aqua
         C - Light red
         D - Light purple
         E - Light yellow
         F - Bright white

   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, color restores the default Command Prompt window foreground and
   background colors as set when CMD.EXE was started. This value either comes from the current
   console window, the /T command line switch or from the DefaultColor registry value.

   To set the default Command Prompt window color, click the upper-left corner of the command
   prompt window, click Defaults, click the Colors tab, and then click the colors that to use
   for the Screen Text and Screen Background.

   Use cmd /t:fb to change the Command Prompt window colors for the current session.

   If the foreground and background colors are the same, the color command sets ERRORLEVEL to
   one (1).

   Examples:

   To change the Command Prompt window foreground color to red and background to white, type:

         color FC

 
COMP
Compares the contents of two files, or sets of files, byte by byte.

   comp [data1] [data2] [/d] [/a] [/l] [/n=number] [/c]

   Parameters:

   - data1 -- Specifies the location and name of the first file or set of files to
              compare. Wildcard characters (* and ?) can be used to specify multiple
              files.
   - data2 -- Specifies the location and name of the second file or set of files to
              compare. Wwildcard characters (* and ?) can be used to specify multiple
              files.
   - /d -- Displays differences in decimal format. (The default format is hexadecimal.)
   - /a -- Displays differences as characters.
   - /l -- Displays the number of the line on which a difference occurs, instead of
           displaying the byte offset.
   - /n=number -- Compares the first number of lines of both files, even if the files
                  are different sizes.
   - /c -- Performs a comparison that is not case-sensitive.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Comp can compare files on the same drive or on different drives, and in the same
   directory or in different directories. When comp compares the files, it displays
   their locations and file names. Used without parameters, comp prompts the entry
   of the files to compare.

   Comparing files with the same names:
   ====================================
   The compared files can have the same file name, provided they are in different
   directories or on different drives. If a name for data2 is not specified, the
   default file name for data2 is the same as the file name in data1. Wwildcard
   characters (i.e. * and ?) can be used to specify file names.

   Special cases for data1 and data2
   ==================================
   If necessary components of either data1 or data2 are omitted or data2 is omitted,
   comp prompts for the missing information. If data1 contains only a drive letter
   or a directory name with no file name, comp compares all of the files in the
   specified directory to the file specified in data2. If data2 contains only a
   drive letter or a directory name, the default file name for data2 is the same
   as that in data1.

   How the comp command identifies mismatching information:
   ========================================================
   During the comparison, comp displays messages to identify the locations of unequal
   information in the two files. Each message indicates the offset memory address of
   the unequal bytes and the contents of the bytes themselves (i.e. in hexadecimal
   notation unless the /a or /d command-line options are specified). The message
   appears in the following format:

      Compare error at OFFSET xxxxxxxx

      file1 = xx

      file2 = xx

   After 10 unequal comparisons, comp stops comparing the files and displays the
   following message:

      10 Mismatches - ending compare

   Comparing files of different sizes:
   ===================================
   Files of different sizes can only be compared if the /n command-line option is
   specified. If the file sizes are different, comp displays the following message:

      Files are different sizes

      Compare more files (Y/N)?

   Press Y to compare another pair of files. Press N to stop the comp command.

   Pressing Y in response to the prompt tells comp to include any command-line
   options specified on the command line for every comparison it makes unless N is
   pressed or the command is retyped.

   When comparing files of different sizes, use the /n command-line option to
   compare only the first portion of each file.

   Comparing files sequentially:
   =============================
   If wildcard characters (* and ?) are used to specify multiple files, comp finds
   the first file matching data1 and compares it with the corresponding file in
   data2, if it exists. The comp command reports the results of the comparison, and
   then does the same for each file matching data1. When finished, comp displays the
   following message:

      Compare more files (Y/N)?

   To compare more files, press Y. The comp command prompts for the locations and
   names of the new files. To stop the comparisons, press N. When press Y, comp
   prompts for command-line options to use. If no command-line options are specified,
   comp uses the ones specified previously.

   If comp cannot find the files

   If comp cannot find the file(s) specified, it prompts a message to determine
   whether to compare more files.

   Examples:

   To compare the contents of the directory C:\Reports with the backup directory
   \\Sales\Backup\April, type:

      comp c:\reports \\sales\backup\april

   To compare the first ten lines of the text files in the \Invoice directory and
   display the result in decimal format, type:

      comp \invoice\*.txt \invoice\backup\*.txt /n=10 /d

 
COMPACT
Displays and alters the compression of files or directories on NTFS partitions.

   compact [{/c|/u}] [/s[:dir]] [/a] [/i] [/f] [/q] [FileName[...]]

   Parameters:

   - /c --  Compresses the specified directory or file.
   - /u --  Uncompresses the specified directory or file.
   - /s:dir --  Specifies that the requested action (compress or uncompress) be applied to all
                subdirectories of the specified directory, or of the current directory if none
                is specified.
   - /a --  Displays hidden or system files.
   - /i --  Ignores errors.
   - /f --  Forces compression or uncompression of the specified directory or file. This is
            used in the case of a file that was partly compressed when the operation was
            interrupted by a system crash. To force the file to be compressed in its entirety,
            use the /c and /f parameters and specify the partially compressed file.
   - /q --  Reports only the most essential information.
   - FileName --  Specifies the file or directory. Multiple file names and wildcard characters
                  (* and ?) can be used.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, compact displays the compression state of the current directory.

   The compact command, the command-line version of the NTFS file system compression feature,
   displays and alters the compression attribute of files and directories on NTFS partitions.
   The compression state of a directory indicates whether files added to the directory will
   be automatically compressed. When the compression state of a directory is set, it does not
   necessarily change the compression state of files that are already there.

   compact cannot be used to read, write, or mount volumes that have been compressed using
   DriveSpace or DoubleSpace.

   Examples:

   To set the compression state of the current folder and its subfolders and existing files,
   from the current folder, type:

      compact /c /s

   To set the compression state of files in the current folder, subfolders in the current
   folder, and files within all subfolders without altering the compression state of the
   current folder, from the current folder, type:

      compact /c /s *.*

   To compress a volume, from the root folder of the volume, type:

      compact /c /i /s:\

   This example sets the compression state of the root folder and all folders on the volume
   and compresses every file on the volume. Using the /i parameter ensures that error messages
   do not interrupt the compression process.

   To compress all files that end in .bmp in the \Tmp directory and all subdirectories of \Tmp,
   but not modify the compressed attribute of these directories, type:

      compact /c /s:\tmp *.bmp

   To force complete compression of the file Zebra.bmp, which was partially compressed at the
   time of a system crash, type:

      compact /c /f zebra.bmp

   To remove the compressed attribute from the directory C:\Tmp, but not change the compression
   state of any files in that directory, type:

      compact /u c:\tmp

 
Computer Management
This is a short cut to start up the Computer Management dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
COMPMGMT.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
CONVERT
Converts FAT volumes to NTFS.

CONVERT volume /FS:NTFS [/V] [/CvtArea:filename] [/NoSecurity] [/X]

  volume      Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
              mount point, or volume name.
  /FS:NTFS    Specifies that the volume is to be converted to NTFS.
  /V          Specifies that Convert should be run in verbose mode.
  /CvtArea:filename
              Specifies a contiguous file in the root directory to be
              the place holder for NTFS system files.
  /NoSecurity Specifies the converted files and directories security
              settings to be accessible by everyone.
  /X          Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary.
              All opened handles to the volume would then be invalid.

 
COPY
Copies one or more files to another location.

   copy [/d] [/v] [/n] [{/y|/-y}] [/z] [{/a|/b}] Source [{/a|/b}]
      [+ Source [{/a|/b}] [+ ...]] [Destination [{/a|/b}]]

   Parameters:

   - /d -- Allows the encrypted files being copied to be saved as decrypted files
           at the destination.
   - /v -- Verifies that new files are written correctly.
   - /n -- Uses a short file name, if available, when copying a file with a name
           longer than eight characters, or with a file extension longer than three
           characters.
   - /y -- Suppresses prompting to confirm to overwrite an existing destination file.
   - /-y -- Prompts to confirm to overwrite an existing destination file.
   - /z -- Copies networked files in restartable mode.
   - /a -- Indicates an ASCII text file.
   - /b -- Indicates a binary file.
   - Source -- Required. Specifies the location from which to copy a file or set of
               files. Source can consist of a drive letter and colon, a folder name,
               a file name, or a combination of these.
   - Destination -- Required. Specifies the location to copy a file or set of files.
                    Destination can consist of a drive letter and colon, a folder
                    name, a file name, or a combination of these.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   An ASCII text file that uses an end-of-file character (i.e. CTRL+Z) to indicate
   the end of the file can be copied.

   Using /a:
   =========
   When /a precedes a list of files on the command line, it applies to all files
   listed until copy encounters /b. In this case, /b applies to the file preceding /b.

   When /a follows a list of files on the command line, it applies to all listed
   files until copy encounters /b. In this case, /b applies to the file preceding /b.

   The effect of /a depends on its position in the command-line string. When /a follows
   Source, copy treats the file as an ASCII file and copies data that precedes the
   first end-of-file character.

   When /a follows Destination, copy adds an end-of-file character as the last
   character of the file.

   Using /b:
   =========
   /b directs the command interpreter to read the number of bytes specified by the file
   size in the directory. /b is the default value for copy, unless copy combines files.

   When /b precedes a list of files on the command line, it applies to all listed files
   until copy encounters /a. In this case, /a applies to the file preceding /a.

   When /b follows a list of files on the command line, it applies to all listed files
   until copy encounters /a. In this case, /a applies to the file preceding /a.

   The effect of /b depends on its position in the commandline string. When /b follows
   Source, copy copies the entire file, including any end-of-file character.

   When /b follows Destination, copy does not add an end-of-file character.

   Using /v:
   =========
   If a write operation cannot be verified an error message appears. Although recording
   errors rarely occur with copy, the /v option can be used to verify that critical data
   has been correctly recorded. The /v command-line option also slows down the copy
   command, because each sector recorded on the disk must be checked.

   Using /y and /-y:
   =================
   If /y is preset in the COPYCMD environment variable, it can be overridden by using /-y
   at the command line. By default, a prompt appends when this setting is replaced unless
   the copy command is executed in a batch script.

   Appending files:
   ================
   To append files, specify a single file for Destination, but multiple files for Source
   (using wildcard characters or file1+file2+file3 format).

   Using /z:
   =========
   If the connection is lost during the copy phase (for example, if the server going
   offline severs the connection), copy /z resumes after the connection is reestablished.
   /z also displays the percentage of the copy operation that is completed for each file.

   Copying to and from devices:
   ============================
   A device name can be substituted for one or more occurrences of Source or Destination.

   Using or omitting /b when copying to a device:
   ==============================================
   When Destination is a device (for example, Com1 or Lpt1), /b copies data to the device
   in binary mode. In binary mode, copy /b copies all characters (i.e. including special
   characters, such as CTRL+C, CTRL+S, CTRL+Z, and carriage return) to the device as data.
   However, if option /b is omitted, data is copied to the device in ASCII mode. In ASCII
   mode, special characters might cause Windows XP to combine files during the copying
   process. For more information, see "Combining files."

   Using the default destination file:
   ===================================
   If a destination file is not specified, a copy is created with the same name, modified
   date, and modified time as the original file, placing the new copy in the current
   directory on the current drive. If the source file is on the current drive and in the
   current directory and a different drive or directory is not specified for the destination
   file, the copy command stops and displays the following error message:

      File cannot be copied onto itself
      0 File(s) copied

   Combining files:
   ================
   If more than one Source is specified, separating entries with a plus sign (+), copy
   combines the files into a single file. Wildcard characters (i.e. * or ?) can be specified
   in Source, but specifying a single file name in Destination, copy combines all files
   matching the file name in Source and creates a single file with the file name specified
   in Destination. In either case, copy assumes the combined files are ASCII files unless
   the /b option is used.

   Copying zero-length files:
   ==========================
   Copy does not copy files that are 0 bytes long. Use xcopy to copy these files.

   Changing the time and date of a file:
   =====================================
   To assign the current time and date to a file without modifying the file, use the
   following syntax:

      copy /b Source+,,

   The commas indicate the omission of the Destination parameter.

   Copying files in subdirectories:
   ================================
   To copy all of a directory's files and subdirectories, use the xcopy command. For
   information about xcopy, see Related Topics.

   The copy command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Examples:

   To copy a file called Memo.doc to Letter.doc in the current drive and ensure that an
   end-of-file character is at the end of the copied file, type:

      copy memo.doc letter.doc /a

   To copy a file named Robin.typ from the current drive and directory to an existing
   directory named Birds that is located on drive C, type:

      copy robin.typ c:\birds

   If the Birds directory does not exist, the file Robin.typ is copied into a file named
   Birds that is located in the root directory on the disk in drive C.

   To copy several files into one file, list several Source files, separate the file names
   with a plus sign (+), and specify a Destination file that to contain the resulting
   combined file. For example, to combine Mar09.rpt, Apr09.rpt, and May09.rpt, which are
   located on the current drive and directory, and place them in a file named Report on the
   current drive and directory, type:

      copy mar09.rpt + apr09.rpt + may09.rpt report

   When combining files, copy marks the destination file with the current date and time.
   If Destination is omitted, the files are combined and stored under the name of the file
   specified first. For example, to combine all four files in Report when a file named
   Report already exists, type:

      copy report + mar09.rpt + apr09.rpt + may09.rpt

   Combining several files into one file can be done by using wildcard characters
   (i.e. * or ?). For example, to combine all files in the current directory on the current
   drive that have the extension .txt into one file named Combin.doc, type:

      copy *.txt combin.doc

   To combine several binary files into one file by using wildcard characters, include /b.
   This prevents Windows XP from treating CTRL+Z as an end-of-file character. For example,
   type:

      copy /b *.exe combin.exe

   Caution:
   ========
   If binary files are combined, the resulting file might be unusable due to internal
   formatting.

   In the following example, copy combines each file that has a .txt extension with its
   corresponding .ref file. The result is a file with the same file name but with a .doc
   extension. Copy combines File1.txt with File1.ref to form File1.doc, and then copy
   combines File2.txt with File2.ref to form File2.doc, and so on. For example, type:

      copy *.txt + *.ref *.doc

   To combine all files with the .txt extension, and then combine all files with the
   .ref extension into one file named Combin.doc, type:

      copy *.txt + *.ref combin.doc

 
DATE
Displays or sets the date.

   DATE [/T | date]

Parameters:

- mm-dd-yy : Sets the date specified where mm is month, dd is day, and yy is year.
- /t : Displays the current date without prompting for a new date.
- /? : Displays help at the command prompt.

Remarks:

The values for mm, dd, and yy must be separated with periods (.), hyphens (-), or
slash marks (/).

Valid mm values are 1 through 12.

Valid dd values are 1 through 31.

Valid yy values are 80 through 99, or 1980 through 2099.

Windows XP changes the month and year automatically, whether the month has 28, 29,
30, or 31 days.

Examples:

To change the date to August 3, 2000, type any of the following:

   08.03.00
   08-03-00
   08/03/00

To display the current system date, type:

   date /t

 
DEFRAG
Locates and consolidates fragmented boot files, data files, and folders on disk drives.

   defrag volume
   defrag volume [/a]
   defrag volume [/a] [/v]
   defrag volume [/v]
   defrag volume [/f]

   Parameters:

   volume -- The drive letter or a mount point of the volume to be defragmented.
   /a --  Analyzes the volume and displays a summary of the analysis report.
   /v --  Displays the complete analysis and defragmentation reports.
          When used in combination with /a, displays only the analysis report.
          When used alone, displays both the analysis and defragmentation reports.
   /f --  Forces defragmentation of the volume regardless of whether it needs to
          be defragmented.
   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   - A volume must have at least 15% free space for defrag to completely and
     adequately defragment it. Defrag uses this space as a sorting area for file
     fragments. If a volume has less than 15% free space, defrag will only
     partially defragment it. To increase the free space on a volume, delete
     unneeded files or move them to another disk.

   - Volumes marked by defrag as 'dirty' cannot be defragmented since 'dirty'
   indicates possible corruption. For 'dirty' drives, chkdsk must first be run
   on them before defragmenting it. The fsutil command can determine if a volume
   is 'dirty'.

   - While defrag is analyzing and defragmenting a volume, it displays a blinking
     cursor. When defrag is finished analyzing and defragmenting the volume, it
     displays the analysis report, the defragmentation report, or both reports,
     and then exits to the command prompt.

   - By default, defrag displays a summary of both the analysis and defragmentation
   reports if the /a or /v parameters are not specified.

   - The reports can be sent to a text file by typing >filename.txt, where
     filename.txt is a specified file name. For example:

         defrag volume /v >filename.txt

   - To interrupt defragmentation, at the command line, press CTRL+C.

   - Running the defrag command and Disk Defragmenter are mutually exclusive.
     If using Disk Defragmenter to defragment a volume and running the defrag
     command at a command-line, the defrag command fails. Conversely, if
     running the defrag command and open Disk Defragmenter, the defragmentation
     options in Disk Defragmenter are unavailable.

 
DEL
Deletes one or more files.

   del [Drive:][Path] FileName [ ...] [/p] [/f] [/s] [/q] [/a[:attributes]]

   erase [Drive:][Path] FileName [ ...] [/p] [/f] [/s] [/q] [/a[:attributes]]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the file or
             set of files to delete. Filename is required. Mmultiple file names
             can be specified. Separate file names with spaces, commas, or semicolons.
   - /p -- Prompts for confirmation before deleting the specified file.
   - /f -- Forces deletion of read-only files.
   - /s -- Deletes specified files from the current directory and all subdirectories.
           Displays the names of the files as they are being deleted.
   - /q -- Specifies quiet mode -- no prompt for delete confirmation is given.
   - /a -- Deletes files based on specified attributes.
   - attributes -- Specifies any of the following file attributes:
      Attribute - Description
      r - Read-only
      a - Archive
      s - System
      h - Hidden
      - - Prefix meaning "not"
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using /p:
   =========
   If /p is used, del displays the name of a file and sends the following message:

      filename, Delete (Y/N)?

   Press Y to confirm the deletion, N to cancel the deletion and display the next
   file name (if a group of files was specified), or CTRL+C to stop the del command.

   Disabling command extensions:
   =============================
   If command extensions are disabled, the /s command-line option displays the names
   of any files that were not found, instead of displaying the names of files that
   are being deleted (i.e. the behavior is reversed). For more information about
   disabling command extensions, see cmd in Related Topics.

   Deleting more than one file at a time:
   ======================================
   To delete all of the files in a folder, type del followed by [Drive:]Path. For
   example, the following command deletes all files in the \Work folder:

      del \work

   Wildcards (i.e. * and ?) can be used to delete more than one file at a time.
   However, use wildcards cautiously with the del command to avoid deleting files
   unintentionally. For example, by typing the following command:

      del *.*

   The del command displays the following prompt:

      All files in directory will be deleted! Are you sure (Y/N)?

   Press Y and then ENTER to delete all files in the current folder, or press N
   and then ENTER to cancel the deletion.

   Before using wildcards with the del command to delete a group of files, use
   the same wildcards with the dir command to see a list of the names of all the
   files included in the group.

   Warning:  After deleting a file from your disk using del, it cannot be retrieved.

   The del command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Examples:

   To delete all files in a folder named Test on drive C:\, type either of the following:

      del c:\test
      del c:\test\*.*

 
Desktop Display Settings
This is a short cut to start up the DESKTOP DISPLAY Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
DESK.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Device Manager
This is a short cut to start up the Device Manager dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
DEVMGMT.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Defragment Disk
This is a short cut to start up the Defragment Disk dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
DFRG.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
DIR
Displays a list of a directory's files and subdirectories.

   dir [Drive:][Path][FileName] [...] [/p] [/q] [/w] [/d] [/a[[:]attributes]]
       [/o[[:]SortOrder]] [/t[[:]TimeField]] [/s] [/b] [/l] [/n] [/x] [/c] [/4]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] -- Specifies the drive and directory for which to display a listing.
   - [FileName] -- Specifies a particular file or group of files for which to display a listing.
   - /p -- Displays one screen of the listing at a time. To see the next screen, press any key
           on the keyboard.
   - /q -- Displays file ownership information.
   - /w -- Displays the listing in wide format, with as many as five file names or directory
           names on each line.
   - /d -- Same as /w but files are sorted by column.
   - /a [[:] attributes] -- Displays only the names of those directories and files with the
           attributes specified. If /a is omitted, dir displays the names of all files except
           hidden and system files. If /a is specified without any attributes, dir displays the
           names of all files, including hidden and system files. The following list describes
           each of the values that can be used for attributes. The colon (:) is optional. Use
           any combination of these values, and do not separate the values with spaces.
            Value - Description
            h - Hidden files
            s - System files
            d - Directories
            a - Files ready for archiving
            r - Read-only files
           -h - Files that are not hidden
           -s - Files other than system files
           -d - Files only (not directories)
           -a - Files that have not changed since the last backup
           -r - Files that are not read-only
   - /o [[:]SortOrder] -- Controls the order in which dir sorts and displays directory names and
                file names. If /o is omitted, dir displays the names in the order in which they
                occur in the directory. If /o is specified without SortOrder, dir displays the
                names of the directories, sorted in alphabetic order, and then displays the names
                of files, sorted in alphabetic order. The colon (:) is optional. The following
                list describes each of the values that can be used for SortOrder. Use any
                combination of the values, and do not separate these values with white spaces.
            Value - Description
            n - In alphabetic order by name
            e - In alphabetic order by extension
            d - By date and time, earliest first
            s - By size, smallest first
            g - With directories grouped before files
           -n - In reverse alphabetic order by name (Z through A)
           -e - In reverse alphabetic order by extension (.ZZZ through .AAA)
           -d - By date and time, latest first
           -s - By size, largest first
           -g - With directories grouped after files
   - /t [[:]TimeField] -- Specifies which time field to display or use for sorting. The following
                          list describes each of the values that can be used for TimeField.
           Value - Description
           c - Creation
           a - Last access
           w - Last written
   - /s -- Lists every occurrence, in the specified directory and all subdirectories, of the
           specified file name.
   - /b -- Lists each directory name or file name, one per line, including the file name extension.
           /b does not display heading information or a summary. /b overrides /w.
   - /l -- Displays unsorted directory names and file names in lowercase. /l does not convert
           extended characters to lowercase.
   - /n -- Displays a long list format with file names on the far right of the screen.
   - /x -- Displays the short names generated for files on NTFS and FAT volumes. The display is
           the same as the display for /n, but short names are displayed after the long name.
   - /c -- Displays the thousand separator in file sizes.
   - /4 -- Displays four-digit year format.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, dir displays the disk's volume label and serial number, followed by
   a list of directories and files on the disk, including their names and the date and time each
   was last modified. For files, dir displays the name extension and the size in bytes. Dir also
   displays the total number of files and directories listed, their cumulative size, and the free
   space (in bytes) remaining on the disk.

   Using multiple filenames:
   =========================
   Multiple filenames can be used. Separate file names with spaces, commas, or semicolons.
   Wildcard characters (i.e. ? and *) can be used in FileName to display a group of files.

   Using wildcards:
   ================
   Wildcards (i.e. ? and *) can be used to display a list of a subset of files and subdirectories.

   Specifying file display attributes:
   ===================================
   If /a is used with more than one value in attributes, dir displays the names of only those
   files with all the specified attributes. For example, if /a is used with r and -h for
   attributes by using either /a:r-h or /ar-h, dir displays only the names of read-only files
   that are not hidden.

   Specifying file name sorting:
   =============================
   If more than one SortOrder value is specified, dir sorts the file names by the first criterion
   first, then by the second criterion, and so on. For example, if /o is used with the e and -s
   values for SortOrder by using either /o:e-s or /oe-s, dir sorts the names of directories and
   files by extension, with the largest first, and then displays the final result. The alphabetic
   sorting by extension causes file names with no extensions to appear first, then directory
   names, and then file names with extensions.

   Using redirection symbols and pipes:
   ====================================
   When using a redirection symbol (>) to send dir output to a file or a pipe (|) to send dir
   output to another command, use /a:-d and /b to list the file names only. FileName can be used
   with /b and /s to specify that dir is to search the current directory and its subdirectories
   for all file names that match FileName. Dir lists only the drive letter, directory name, file
   name, and file name extension, one path per line, for each file name it finds. Before using a
   pipe for redirection, set the TEMP environment variable in the Autoexec.nt file or or in the
   system variables.

   Presetting dir parameters:
   ==========================
   dir parameters can be preset by including set with the DIRCMD environment variable in the
   Autoexec.nt file. Any valid combination of dir parameters can be used with set dircmd, i
   ncluding the location and name of a file.

   For example, to use the DIRCMD environment variable to set the wide display format (i.e. /w)
   as the default format, type the following command in the Autoexec.nt file:

      set dircmd=/w

   For a single use of the dir command, a parameter can be overridden by using the DIRCMD
   environment variable. To do so, type the parameter to override at the dir command prompt,
   preceding the parameter with a minus sign. For example:

      dir /-w

   To change the DIRCMD default settings, type:

      set=NewParameter

   The new default settings are effective for all subsequent dir commands until set dircmd is
   used again or until the computer is restarted.

   To clear all default settings, type:

      set dircmd=

   To view the current settings of the DIRCMD environment variable, type:

      set

   Set displays a list of environment variables and their settings. For more information about
   setting environment variables, see Related Topics.

   The dir command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Examples:

   To display all directories, one after the other, in alphabetical order, in wide format and
   pausing after each screen, make sure that the root directory is the current directory, and
   then type:

      dir /s/w/o/p

   Dir lists the name of the root directory, the names of the subdirectories of the root
   directory, and the names of the files in the root directory, including extensions. Then,
   dir lists the subdirectory names and file names in each subdirectory in the tree.

   To alter the preceding example so that dir displays the file names and extensions, but
   omits the directory names, type:

      dir /s/w/o/p/a:-d

   To print a directory listing, type:

      dir > prn

   When specifing prn, the directory list is sent to the printer attached to the LPT1 port.
   If the printer is attached to a different port, prn must be replaced with the name of
   the correct port.

   Output of the dir command can be redirected to a file by replacing prn with a file name.
   A path can also be typed. For example, to direct dir output to the file Dir.doc in the
   Records directory, type:

      dir > \records\dir.doc

   If Dir.doc does not exist, dir creates it, unless the Records directory does not exist.
   In that case, the following message appears:

   File creation error

   To display a list of all the file names with the .txt extension in all directories on
   drive C, type:

      dir c:\*.txt /w/o/s/p

   Dir displays, in wide format, an alphabetized list of the matching file names in each
   directory and pauses each time the screen fills up, until any key is pressed to continue.

 
DISKCOMP
Compare the contents of two floppy disks.

   diskcomp [drive1: [drive2:]]

   Parameters:

   - drive1 -- Specifies the drive containing one of the floppy disks.
   - drive2 -- Specifies the drive containing the other floppy disk.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, diskcomp uses the current drive for both disks to compare.

   Using disks:
   ============
   The diskcomp command works only with floppy disks. diskcomp cannot be used with a hard
   disk. If a hard disk drive is specified for drive1 or drive2, diskcomp displays the
   following error message:

      Invalid drive specification
      Specified drive does not exist
      or is nonremovable

   Comparing disks:
   ================
   If all tracks on the two disks being compared are the same, diskcomp displays the
   following message:

      Compare OK

   If the tracks are not the same, diskcomp displays a message similar to the following:

      Compare error on
      side 1, track 2

   When diskcomp completes the comparison, it displays the following message:

      Compare another diskette (Y/N)?

   If press Y, diskcomp prompts to insert disks for the next comparison. If press N,
   diskcomp stops the comparison.

   When diskcomp makes the comparison, it ignores a disk's volume number.

   Omitting drive parameters:
   ==========================
   If drive2 parameter is omitted, diskcomp uses the current drive for drive2. If both
   drive parameters are omitted, diskcomp uses the current drive for both. If the current
   drive is the same as drive1, diskcomp prompts for swapping disks as necessary.

   Using one drive:
   ================
   If the same floppy disk drive is specified for drive1 and drive2, diskcomp does a comparison
   by using one drive and prompts for inserting the disks as necessary. The disks might need to
   be swapped more than once, depending on the capacity of the disks and the amount of
   available memory.

   Comparing different types of disks:
   ===================================
   Diskcomp cannot compare a single-sided disk with a double-sided disk, nor a high-density
   disk with a double-density disk. If the disk in drive1 is not of the same type as the disk
   in drive2, diskcomp displays the following message:

   Drive types or diskette types not compatible

   Using diskcomp with networks and redirected drives:
   ===================================================
   Diskcomp does not work on a network drive or on a drive created by the subst command. If
   attempt to use diskcomp with a drive of any of these types, diskcomp displays the
   following error message:

   Invalid drive specification

   Comparing an original disk with a copy:
   =======================================
   When using diskcomp with a disk that was made by using copy, diskcomp might display a
   message similar to the following:

      Compare error on
      side 0, track 0

   This type of error can occur even if the files on the disks are identical. Although copy
   duplicates information, it does not necessarily place it in the same location on the
   destination disk. For more information about comparing individual files on two disks by
   using Fc, see Related Topics.

   Understanding diskcomp exit codes:
   ==================================
   The following table lists each exit code and a brief description.

      Exit code - Description

      0 - Disks are the same
      1 - Differences were found
      3 - Hard error occurred
      4 - Initialization error occurred

   To process exit codes returned by diskcomp, use errorlevel on the if command line in a
   batch program.

   Examples:

   If the computer has only one floppy disk drive (for example, drive A), and two disks are
   to be compared, type:

      diskcomp a: a:

   Diskcomp prompts to insert each disk, as needed.

   The following example illustrates how to process a diskcomp exit code in a batch program
   that uses the errorlevel parameter on the if command line:

      rem Checkout.bat compares the disks in drive A and B
      echo off
      diskcomp a: b:
      if errorlevel 4 goto ini_error
      if errorlevel 3 goto hard_error
      if errorlevel 1 goto no_compare
      if errorlevel 0 goto compare_ok
      :ini_error
      echo ERROR: Insufficient memory or command invalid
      goto exit
      :hard_error
      echo ERROR: An irrecoverable error occurred
      goto exit
      :break
      echo "CTRL+C pressed" to stop the comparison
      goto exit
      :no_compare
      echo Disks are not the same
      goto exit
      :compare_ok
      echo The comparison was successful; the disks are the same
      goto exit
      :exit

 
DISKCOPY
Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.

   diskcopy [drive1: [drive2:]] [/v]

   Parameters:

   - drive1 -- Specifies the drive containing the source disk.
   - drive2 -- Specifies the drive containing the destination disk.
   - /v -- Verifies that the information is copied correctly. This command-line
           option slows down the copying process.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, diskcopy uses the current drive for the source disk
   and the destination disk.

   Using disks:
   ============
   Diskcopy works only with removable disks, such as floppy disks. diskcopy cannot
   be used with a hard disk. If a hard disk drive is specified for drive1 or drive2,
   diskcopy displays the following error message:

      Invalid drive specification
      Specified drive does not exist
      or is nonremovable

   The diskcopy command prompts to insert the source and destination disks and waits
   for any key on the keyboard to be pressed before continuing.

   After copying, diskcopy displays the following message:

      Copy another diskette (Y/N)?

   If press Y, diskcopy prompts to insert source and destination disks for the next
   copy operation. To stop the diskcopy process, press N.

   If copying to an unformatted floppy disk in drive2, diskcopy formats the disk with
   the same number of sides and sectors per track as are on the disk in drive1.
   Diskcopy displays the following message while it formats the disk and copies the files:

      Formatting while copying

   Disk serial numbers:
   ====================
   If the source disk has a volume serial number, diskcopy creates a new volume serial
   number for the destination disk and displays the number when the copy operation is
   complete.

   Omitting drive parameters:
   ==========================
   If the drive2 parameter is omitted, diskcopy uses the current drive as the destination
   drive. If both drive parameters are omitted, diskcopy uses the current drive for both.
   If the current drive is the same as drive1, diskcopy prompts to swap disks as necessary.

   Using one drive for copying:
   ============================
   If drive1 and drive2 are the same, diskcopy prompts to switch disks. If both Drive
   parameters are omitted and the current disk drive is a floppy disk drive, diskcopy
   prompts each time a disk needs to be inserted in the drive. If the disks contain more
   information than available memory can hold, diskcopy cannot read all of the information
   at once. Diskcopy reads from the source disk, writes to the destination disk, and prompts
   to insert the source disk again. This process continues until the entire disk has been
   copied.

   Avoiding disk fragmentation:
   ============================
   Because diskcopy makes an exact copy of the source disk on the destination disk, any
   fragmentation on the source disk is transferred to the destination disk. Fragmentation
   is the presence of small areas of unused disk space between existing files on a disk.

   A fragmented source disk can slow down the process of finding, reading, or writing files.
   To avoid transferring fragmentation from one disk to another, use copy or xcopy to copy
   the disk. Because copy and xcopy copy files sequentially, the new disk is not fragmented.

   Warning:  xcopy cannot be used to copy a startup disk.

   Understanding diskcopy exit codes:
   ==================================
   The following table lists each exit code and a brief description.

      Exit code - Description

      0 - Copy operation was successful
      1 - Nonfatal read/write error occurred
      3 - Fatal hard error occurred
      4 - Initialization error occurred

   To process exit codes returned by diskcomp, use the errorlevel on the if command line
   in a batch program. For an example of a batch program that processes exit codes, see
   diskcomp in Related Topics.

   Examples:Examples:

   To copy the disk in drive B to the disk in drive A, type:

      diskcopy b: a:

 
Disk Management
This is a short cut to start up the Disk Management dialog. This dialog can tell if
the disk drive is of type NTSF or FAT.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
DISKMGMT.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
DOSKEY
Calls doskey.exe, which recalls Windows XP commands, edits command lines and creates macros.

   doskey {/reinstall | /listsize=size | /macros:[{all | exename}] | /history | /insert
          | /overstrike | /exename=exename | /macrofile=FileName | macroname=[text]}

   Parameters:

   - /reinstall -- Installs a new copy of doskey.exe. Clears the command history buffer.
   - /listsize=size -- Specifies the maximum number of commands in the history buffer.
   - /macros -- Displays a list of all doskey macros. A redirection symbol (>) can be used
                with /macros to redirect the list to a file. /macros can be abbreviated to /m.
   - all -- Displays doskey macros for all executables.
   - exename -- Displays doskey macros for the specified executable.
   - /history -- Displays all commands stored in memory. A redirection symbol (>) can be used
                 with /history to redirect the list to a file. /history can be abbreviated as /h.
   - {/insert | /overstrike} -- Specifies whether new typed text is to replace old text. If
                                /insert is used, new typed text typed on a line is inserted
                                into old text (i.e., as if the INSERT key were pressed). If
                                /overstrike is used, new text replaces old text. The default
                                setting is /overstrike.
   - /exename=exename -- Specifies the program (i.e., executable) in which the doskey macro runs.
   - /macrofile=FileName -- Specifies a file containing macros to install.
   - macroname=[text] -- Creates a macro that carries out the commands specified by text.
                         Macroname specifies the name to assign to the macro. Text specifies
                         the commands to record. If text is left blank, macroname is cleared
                         of any assigned commands.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using doskey.exe:
   =================
   doskey.exe is always available for all character-based, interactive programs (such as
   program debuggers or file transfer programs), and maintains a command history buffer and
   macros for each program that it starts. doskey command-line options cannot be used from a
   program. doskey command-line options must be run before starting a program. Program key
   assignments override doskey key assignments.

   Recalling a command:
   ====================
   To recall a command, use any of the following keys after starting doskey.exe. If doskey.exe
   is used within a program, that program's key assignments take precedence.

      Key - Description

      UP ARROW - Recalls the command sed before the one displayed.
      DOWN ARROW - Recalls the command used after the one displayed.
      PAGE UP - Recalls the oldest command used in the current session.
      PAGE DOWN - Recalls the most recent command used.

   Editing the command line:
   =========================
   With doskey.exe, the current command line can be edited. If doskey.exe is used within a
   program, that program's key assignments take precedence and some doskey.exe editing keys
   might not work.

   The following table lists doskey editing keys and their functions.

      Key or key combination - Description

      LEFT ARROW - Moves the insertion point back one character.
      RIGHT ARROW - Moves the insertion point forward one character.
      CTRL+LEFT ARROW - Moves the insertion point back one word.
      CTRL+RIGHT ARROW - Moves the insertion point forward one word.
      HOME - Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the line.
      END - Moves the insertion point to the end of the line.
      ESC - Clears the command from the display.
      F1 - Copies one character from the same column in the template to the same column in
           the Command Prompt window. (The template is a memory buffer that holds the last
           command typed.)
      F2 - Searches forward in the template for the next key typed after pressing F2.
           doskey.exe inserts the text from the template up to, but not including,
           the character specified.
      F3 - Copies the remainder of the template to the command line. doskey.exe begins
           copying characters from the position in the template that corresponds to the
           position indicated by the insertion point on the command line.
      F4 - Deletes characters from the current insertion point position up to a character
           specified. To use this editing key, press F4 and type a character. doskey.exe
           deletes the characters from the current insertion point position to the first
           letter specified.
      F5 - Copies the template into the current command line.
      F6 - Places an end-of-file character (i.e., CTRL+Z) at the current insertion point
           position.
      F7 - Displays all commands for this program stored in memory in a pop-up box. Use
           the UP ARROW key and the DOWN ARROW key to select the command wanted, and press
           ENTER to run the command. The sequential number noted in front of the command
           and use this number in conjunction with the F9 key.
      ALT+F7 - Deletes all commands stored in memory for the current history buffer.
      F8 - Displays all commands in the history buffer that start with the characters in
           the current command.
      F9 - Prompts for a history buffer command number, then displays the command
           associated with the number specified. Press ENTER to run the command. To
           display all the numbers and their associated commands, press F7.
      ALT+F10 - Deletes all macro definitions.

   Using doskey within a program:
   ==============================
   Certain character-based, interactive programs, such as program debuggers or file
   transfer programs (FTP), automatically use doskey.exe. To use doskey.exe, a program
   must be a console process and use buffered input. Program key assignments override
   doskey key assignments. For example, if the program uses the F7 key for some function,
   then a doskey command history cannot be gotten in a pop-up window.

   With doskey.exe a command history can be maintained for each program started, repeat
   and edit previous commands at the program's prompt, and start doskey macros created
   for the program. If exit then restart a program from the same Command Prompt window,
   the command history from the previous program session is available.

   doskey.exe must be run before starting a program. doskey command-line options cannot
   be used from a program's command prompt, even if the program has a shell command.

   To customize how doskey.exe works with a program and create doskey macros for that
   program, first  create a batch program that modifies doskey.exe and starts the program.

   Specifying a default insert mode:
   =================================
   If INSERT key is pressed, then type text on the doskey command line in the middle of
   old text without replacing the old text. However, after pressing ENTER, doskey.exe
   returns the keyboard to the replace mode. INSERT must be again to return to return to
   insert mode.

   Use /insert to switch the keyboard to insert mode each time ENTER is pressed. The keyboard
   effectively remains in insert mode until /overstrike is used. To temporarily return to
   replace mode, press the INSERT key, but after pressing ENTER, doskey.exe returns the
   keyboard to insert mode.

   The insertion point changes shape when the INSERT key is used to change from one mode to
   the other.

   Creating a macro:
   =================
   doskey.exe can be used to create macros that carry out one or more commands. The following
   table lists special characters than can be used to control command operations when a macro
   is defined.

      Character - Description

      $G or $g - Redirects output. Use either of these special characters to send output to a
                 device or a file instead of to the screen. This character is equivalent to the
                 redirection symbol for output (>).
      $G$G or $g$g - Appends output to the end of a file. Use either of these special double
                     characters to append output to an existing file instead of replacing the
                     data in the file. These double characters are equivalent to the append
                     redirection symbol for output (>>).
      $L or $l - Redirects input. Use either of these special characters to read input from a
                 device or a file instead of from the keyboard. This character is equivalent
                 to the redirection symbol for input (<).
      $B or $b - Sends macro output to a command. These special characters are equivalent to
                 using the pipe (|) on a command line.
      $T or $t - Separates commands. Use either of these special characters to separate
                 commands when creating macros or typing commands on the doskey command line.
                 These special characters are equivalent to using the ampersand (&) on a command
                 line.
      $$ - Specifies the dollar-sign character ($).
      $1 through $9 - Represent any command-line information to specify when running the macro.
                      The special characters $1 through $9 are batch parameters, which make it
                      possible to use different data on the command line each time the macro is
                      run. The $1 character in a doskey command is similar to the %1 character
                      in a batch program.
      $* - Represents all the command-line information to specify when typing the macro name.
           The special character $* is a replaceable parameter that is similar to the batch
           parameters $1 through $9, with one important difference: everything typed on the
           command line after the macro name is substituted for the $* in the macro.

   Running a doskey macro:
   =======================
   To run a macro, type the macro name starting at the first position on the command line. If the
   macro was defined with $* or any of the batch parameters $1 through $9, use a white space to
   separate parameters. A doskey macro cannot be run from a batch program.

   Creating a macro with the same name as a Windows XP command:
   ============================================================
   For a particular command with specific command-line options, a macro can be created that
   has the same name as the command. To specify whether to run the macro or the command, follow
   these guidelines:

      To run the macro, begin typing the macro name immediately after the command prompt, with
      no space between the prompt and the command name.

      To run the command, insert one or more white spaces between the command prompt and the
      command name.

   Deleting a macro:
   =================
   To delete a macro, type:

      doskey macroname=

   Examples:

   The /macros and /history command-line options are useful for creating batch programs to
   save macros and commands. For example, to store all current doskey macros, type:

      doskey /macros > macinit

   To use the macros stored in Macinit, type:

      doskey /macrofile=macinit

   To create a batch program named Tmp.bat that contains recently used commands, type:

      doskey /history > tmp.bat

   To define a macro with multiple commands, use $t to separate commands, as follows:

      doskey tx=cd temp$tdir/w $*

   In the preceding example, the TX macro changes the current directory to Temp and then
   displays a directory listing in wide display format. Use $* at the end of the macro to
   append other command-line options to dir when running TX.

   The following macro uses a batch parameter for a new directory name:

      doskey mc=md $1$tcd $1

   The macro creates a new directory and then changes to it from the current directory.

   To use the preceding macro to create and change to a directory named Books, type:

      mc books

   To create a doskey macro for a program called Ftp.exe, include /exename as follows:

      doskey /exename:ftp.exe go=open 10.127.1.100$tmget *.TXT c:\reports$bye

   To use the preceding macro, start ftp. At the ftp prompt, type:

      go

   Ftp runs the open, mget, and bye commands.

   To create a macro that performs a quick and unconditional format of a disk, type:

      doskey qf=format $1 /q /u

   To format a disk in drive A quickly and unconditionally, type:

      qf a:

 
DRIVERQUERY
Displays a list of all installed device drivers and their properties

 driverquery [/s Computer][/u Domain\User /p Password][/fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV}][/nh][/v][/si]

   Parameters:
   - /s Computer -- Specifies the name or IP address of a remote computer (do not use
                    backslashes). The default is the local computer.
   - /u Domain\User -- Runs the command with the account permissions of the user specified
                       by User or Domain\User. The default is the permissions of the current
                       logged on user on the computer issuing the command.
   - /p Password -- Specifies the password of the user account that is specified in the /u
                    parameter.
   - /fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV} -- Specifies the format to display the driver information. Valid
                             values are TABLE, LIST, and CSV. The default format for output
                             is TABLE.
   - /nh -- Omits the header row from the displayed driver information. Valid when the /fo
            parameter is set to TABLE or CSV.
   - /v -- Specifies that detailed driver information be displayed.
   - /si -- Displays digital signature information for both signed and unsigned device drivers.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Examples:
   - driverquery
   - driverquery /fo csv
   - driverquery /nh
   - driverquery /s ipaddress
   - driverquery /s server1 /u hirpln /v driverquery /s server1 /u maindom\hirpln /p p@ssw3d
                 /fo list

 
ECHO
Turns the command-echoing feature on or off, or displays a message.

  echo [{on|off}] [message]

   Parameters:

  - {on|off} -- Specifies whether to turn the command-echoing feature on or off.
  - message -- Specifies text to display on the screen.
  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  Used without parameters, echo displays the current echo setting.

  The echo message command is useful when echo is turned off. To display a message
  that is several lines long without displaying other commands, include several
  echo message commands after the echo off command in the batch program.

  When using echo off, the command prompt does not appear on the screen. To display
  the command prompt, type echo on.

  To prevent echoing of a line, insert an at sign (@) in front of a command in a
  batch program.

  To echo a blank line on the screen, type:

     echo.

  To display a pipe (|) or redirection character (< or >) when using echo, use a
  caret character immediately before the pipe or redirection character (for example:
  ^>, ^<, or ^| ). To echo the caret character (^), type two (^^).

    Examples:

  The following example is a batch program that includes a three-line message
  preceded by and then followed by a blank line:

  - echo off
  - echo.
  - echo This batch program
  - echo formats and checks
  - echo new disks
  - echo.

  To turn echo off without echoing the echo command, type an at sign (@) before
  the command as follows:

     @echo off

  The if and echo commands can be used on the same command line. For example:

     if exist *.rpt echo The report has arrived

 
ENDLOCAL
Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file, restoring environment
variables to their values before the matching setlocal command.

   Parameters:

  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  endlocal can only be used in a script or batch file, endlocal used outside of
  a script or batch file has no effect.

  There is an implicit endlocal command at the end of a batch file.

  Environment changes made after ENDLOCAL has been issued are not local to the
  batch file; the previous settings are not restored on termination of the batch file.

  With command extensions enabled (i.e. the default), the endlocal command
  restores the state of command extensions (i.e. enabled or disabled) to
  what it was before the matching setlocal command was executed. For more
  information about enabling and disabling command extensions, see cmd in
  Related Topics.

  If Command Extensions are enabled ENDLOCAL changes as follows:

     If the corresponding SETLOCAL enable or disabled command extensions
     using the new ENABLEEXTENSIONS or DISABLEEXTENSIONS options, then
     after the ENDLOCAL, the enabled/disabled state of command extensions
     will be restored to what it was prior to the matching SETLOCAL
     command execution.

    Examples:

  Environment variables in a batch file can be localized. For example:

     @echo off
     rem This program starts the superapp batch program on the network,
     rem directs the output to a file, and displays the file
     rem in Notepad.
     setlocal
     path=g:\programs\superapp;%path%
     call superapp>c:\superapp.out
     endlocal
     start notepad c:\superapp.out

 
ERASE
Deletes one or more files.

See DEL

 
Event Viewer
This is a short cut to start up the Event Viewer dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
EVENTVWR and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
EXIT
Exits the current batch script or the Cmd.exe program (i.e., the command interpreter) and
returns to the program that started Cmd.exe or to the Program Manager.

   exit [/b] [ExitCode]

   Parameters:

   - /b --  Exits the current batch script.
   - ExitCode --  Specifies a numeric number.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   If /b is used outside of a batch script, it will exit Cmd.exe.

   If /b is used, Cmd.exe sets the ERRORLEVEL to the specified ExitCode. If you exit Cmd.exe,
   Cmd.exe sets the process exit code with the specified ExitCode.

 
Windows Explorer
This is a short cut to start up Windows Explorer.

Windows Explorer normally displays the dialog and starts at "My Documents" which it
opens the first level. To select another point where Explorer starts, type in the
following:

   explorer.exe /e, 

The given path must be a folder immediately in the root folder. The path can be
something such as these examples:

   C:\myfolder\pictures
   J:\backups
   Z:

To have Explorer start at the same folder that the command prompt is already at,
type in (that last character is a period which means "current directory"):

   explorer.exe /e, .

To have Explorer start at the folder that is one higher up that the folder that is
the folder that te command prompt is already at, type in (those last two characters
are periods which means "parent directory of the current directory"):

   explorer.exe /e, ..

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
EXPLORER and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
FILTERS

 Used in conjunction with the command redirection pipe character (|), a command filter
 is a command within a command that reads the command's input, transforms the input,
 and then writes the output. Filter commands help sort, view, and select parts of
 a command output. Filter commands divide, rearrange, or extract portions of the
 information that passes through them. The following table lists filter commands that
 are available in Windows XP.

 The three filters are:
 - more -- Displays the contents of a file or the output of a command in one Command
           Prompt window at a time.
 - find -- Searches through files and command output for the characters specified.
 - sort -- Alphabetizes files and command output.

 To send input from a file to a filter command, use a less than sign (<). Use a pipe (|)
 to get input from another command

 more:
 =====
 Displays the contents of a file or the output of a command in one Command Prompt window
 at a time. For example, to display the contents of a file called List.txt in one Command
 Prompt window at a time, type:

   more < list.txt

 One Command Prompt window of information appears, and then the -- More -- prompt appears
 at the bottom of the Command Prompt window. To continue to the next Command Prompt window,
 press any key on the keyboard except PAUSE. To stop the command without viewing more
 information, press CTRL+C.

 Use the more command when working with a command that produces more than one Command
 Prompt window of output. For example, to view a directory tree on the hard disk. If
 there are more directories than can be displayed in the Command Prompt window, use the
 tree command with a pipe (|) and the more command as follows:

   tree c:\ | more

 The first Command Prompt window of output from the tree command appears, followed by
 the -- More -- prompt. Output pauses until any key, except PAUSE, is pressed

 find:
 =====
 Searches files for the given string or text. Cmd.exe displays every line that matches
 the given string or text in the Command Prompt window. Use the find command either as
 a filter command or a standard Windows XP command. For more information about using
 find as a standard command, see Find.

 To use find as a filter command, include a less than sign (<) then the string or text
 to be searched. By default, find searches are case-sensitive. For example, the following
 command finds occurrences of the string "Pacific Rim" in the file Trade.txt:

   find "Pacific Rim" < trade.txt

 The output does not include any occurrences of "pacific rim." It includes occurrences
 of the capitalized "Pacific Rim" only.

 To save the output of the find command rather than display it in the Command Prompt
 window, type a greater than sign (>) and the name of the file in which to store the
 output. For example, the following command finds occurrences of "Pacific Rim" in
 the Trade.txt file and saves them in Nwtrade.txt:

   find "Pacific Rim" < trade.txt > nwtrade.txt

 sort:
 =====
 Alphabetize a text file or the output of a command. For example, the following sorts the
 contents of a file named List.txt and displays the results in the Command Prompt window:

   sort < list.txt

 In this example, the sort command sorts the lines of the List.txt file into an alphabetical
 list and displays the results without changing the file. To save the output of the sort
 command rather than display it, type a greater than sign (>) and a file name. For example,
 the following command alphabetizes the lines of the List.txt file and stores the results
 in the Alphlist.txt file:

   sort < list.txt > alphlist.txt

 To sort the output of a command, type the command, type a pipe (|), and then type sort
 (i.e. command | sort). For example, the following command sorts the lines that include
 the string "Jones" (i.e. the find command output) in alphabetical order:

   find "Jones" maillst.txt | sort

 
FC
   fc [/a] [/b] [/c] [/l] [/lbn] [/n] [/t] [/u] [/w] [/nnnn] [drive1:][path1]filename1
      [drive2:][path2]filename2

   Parameters:

   - /a -- Abbreviates the output of an ASCII comparison. Instead of displaying all of the
           lines that are different, fc displays only the first and last line for each set
           of differences.
   - /b -- Compares the files in binary mode. Fc compares the two files byte by byte and
           does not attempt to resynchronize the files after finding a mismatch. This is
           the default mode for comparing files that have the following file extensions:
           .exe, .com, .sys, .obj, .lib, or .bin.
   - /c -- Ignores the case of letters.
   - /l -- Compares the files in ASCII mode. Fc compares the two files line by line and
           attempts to resynchronize the files after finding a mismatch. This is the
           default mode for comparing files, except files with the following file
           extensions: .exe, .com, .sys, .obj, .lib, or .bin.
   - /lbn -- Sets the n number of lines for the internal line buffer. The default length
             of the line buffer is 100 lines. If the files being compared have more than
             this number of consecutive differing lines, fc cancels the comparison.
   - /n -- Displays the line numbers during an ASCII comparison.
   - /t -- Prevents fc from converting tabs to spaces. The default behavior is to treat
           tabs as spaces, with stops at each eighth character position.
   - /u -- Compares files as Unicode text files.
   - /w -- Compresses white space (i.e., tabs and spaces) during the comparison. If a
           line contains many consecutive spaces or tabs, /w treats these characters as
           a single space. When used with the /w command-line option, fc ignores (and
           does not compare) white space at the beginning and end of a line.
   - /nnnn -- Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match before fc
              considers the files to be resynchronized. If the number of matching lines
              in the files is less than nnnn, fc displays the matching lines as
              differences. The default value is 2.
   - [drive1:][path1]filename1 -- Specifies the location and name of the first file to
                                  compare. Filename1 is required.
   - [drive2:][path2]filename2 -- Specifies the location and name of the second file to
                                  compare. Filename2 is required.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Reporting differences between files for an ASCII comparison

   When using fc for an ASCII comparison, fc displays differences between two files in
   the following order:

      Name of the first file
      Lines from filename1 that differ between the files
      First line to match in both files
      Name of the second file
      Lines from filename2 that differ
      First line to match

   Using /b for binary comparisons:
   ================================
   /b displays mismatches found during a binary comparison as follows:

      xxxxxxxx: yy zz

   The value of xxxxxxxx specifies the relative hexadecimal address for the pair of bytes,
   measured from the beginning of the file. Addresses start at 00000000. The hexadecimal
   values for yy and zz represent the mismatched bytes from filename1 and filename2,
   respectively.

   Using wildcards:
   ================
   Wildcards (i.e., * and ?) can be used in filename1 and filename2. If wildcards are used
   in filename1, fc compares all the specified files to the file specified by FileName. If
   wildcards are used in filename2, fc uses the corresponding value from filename1.

   Working with memory:
   ====================
   When comparing ASCII files, fc uses an internal buffer (large enough to hold 100 lines)
   as storage. If the files are larger than the buffer, fc compares what it can load into
   the buffer. If fc does not find a match in the loaded portions of the files, it stops
   and displays the following message:

      Resynch failed. Files are too different.

   When comparing binary files that are larger than available memory, fc compares both files
   completely, overlaying the portions in memory with the next portions from the disk. The
   output is the same as that for files that fit completely in memory.

   Examples:

   To make an ASCII comparison of two text files that are named Monthly.rpt and Sales.rpt
   and display the results in abbreviated format, type:

      fc /a monthly.rpt sales.rpt

   To make a binary comparison of two batch files named Profits.bat and Earnings.bat, type:

      fc /b profits.bat earnings.bat

   The results similar to the following appear:

      00000002: 72 43
      00000004: 65 3A
      0000000E: 56 92
      00000012: 6D 5C
      00000013: 0D 7C
      00000014: 0D 0A
      00000015: 0A 0D
      0000001E: 43 7A
      0000001F: 09 0A
      00000022: 72 44
      ...
      ...
      ...
      000005E0: 00 61
      000005E1: 00 73
      000005E2: 00 73
      000005E3: 00 69
      000005E4: 00 67
      000005E5: 00 6E
      000005E6: 00 6D
      000005E7: 00 65
      000005E8: 00 6E
      FC: Earnings.bat longer than Profits.bat

   If the Profits.bat and Earnings.bat files are identical, fc displays the following message:

      fc: no differences encountered

   To compare every .bat file in the current directory with the file New.bat, type:

      fc *.bat new.bat

   To compare the file New.bat on drive C with the file New.bat on drive D, type:

      fc c:new.bat d:*.bat

   To compare each batch file in the root directory on drive C to the file with the same name
   in the root directory on drive D, type:

      fc c:*.bat d:*.bat

 
FIND
Searches for a specific string of text in a file or files.

   find [/v] [/c] [/n] [/i] "string" [[Drive:][Path]FileName[...]]

   Parameters:

   - /v -- Displays all lines that do not contain the specified string.
   - /c -- Counts the lines that contain the specified string and displays the total.
   - /n -- Precedes each line with the file's line number.
   - /i -- Specifies that the search is not case-sensitive.
   - "string" -- Required. Specifies the group of characters to search for.
                 The string must be enclosed in quotation marks (i.e., "string").
   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the file in which to
                                search for the specified string.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   After searching the specified file or files, find displays any lines of text that contain
   the specified string.

   Specifying a string:
   ====================
   If /i is not used, find searches for exactly what is specified for string. For example,
   the find command treats the characters "a" and "A" differently. If /i is used, however,
   find is not case-sensitive and treats "a" and "A" as the same character.

   If the string to search for contains quotation marks, two quotation marks must be used for
   each quotation mark contained within the string (i.e., "StringContaining""QuotationMarks").

   Using find as a filter:
   =======================
   If a file name is omitted, find acts as a filter, taking input from the standard input
   source (usually the keyboard, a pipe, or a redirected file) and then displaying any lines
   that contain string.

   Ordering command syntax:
   ========================
   Parameters and command-line options for the find command can be in any order.

   Using wildcards:
   ================
   Wildcards (i.e., * and ?) cannot be used in file names or extensions that are specified
   with the find command. To search for a string in a set of files that are specified with
   wildcards, the find command can be used in a 'for' command.

   Using /v or /n with /c:
   =======================
   If /c and /v are used in the same command line, find displays a count of the lines that
   do not contain the specified string. If /c and /n are specified in the same command line,
   find ignores /n.

   Using find with carriage returns:
   =================================
   The find command does not recognize carriage returns. When searching for text in a file
   that includes carriage returns, the search string must be limited to text that can be
   found between carriage returns (i.e., a string that is not likely to be interrupted by
   a carriage return). For example, find does not report a match for the string "tax file"
   wherever a carriage return occurs between the word "tax" and the word "file."

   Examples:

   To display all lines from Pencil.ad that contain the string "Pencil Sharpener", type:

      find "Pencil Sharpener" pencil.ad

   To find a string that contains text within quotation marks, first enclose the entire
   string in quotation marks. Second, use two quotation marks for each quotation mark
   contained within the string. To find "The scientists labeled their paper "for discussion
   only." It is not a final report." in Report.doc, type:

      find "The scientists labeled their paper ""for discussion only.""
      It is not a final report." report.doc

   To search for a set of files, use the find command with the 'for' command. To search the
   current directory for files that have the extension .bat and that contain the string "PROMPT,"
   type:

      for %f in (*.bat) do find "PROMPT" %f

   To search the hard disk to find and display the file names on drive C that contain the string
   "CPU," use the pipe (|) to direct the results of a dir command to find as follows:

      dir c:\ /s /b | find "CPU"

   Because find searches are case-sensitive and dir produces uppercase output, either type the
   string "CPU" in uppercase letters or use the /i command-line option with find.

 
FINDSTR
Searches for strings in files.

   findstr [/b] [/e] [/l] [/r] [/s] [/i] [/x] [/v] [/n] [/m] [/o] [/p] [/offline] [/g:file]
           [/f:file] [/c:string] [/d:dirlist] [/a:ColorAttribute] [strings] [[Drive:][Path]
           FileName [...]]

   Parameters:

   - /b -- Matches the pattern if at the beginning of a line.
   - /e -- Matches the pattern if at the end of a line.
   - /l -- Uses search strings literally.
   - /r -- Uses search strings as regular expressions. Findstr interprets all metacharacters
           as regular expressions unless /l is used.
   - /s -- Searches for matching files in the current directory and all subdirectories.
   - /i -- Specifies that the search is not to be case-sensitive.
   - /x -- Prints lines that match exactly.
   - /v -- Prints only lines that do not contain a match.
   - /n -- Prints the line number before each line that matches.
   - /m -- Prints only the file name if a file contains a match.
   - /o -- Prints seek offset before each matching line.
   - /p -- Skips files with non-printable characters.
   - /offline -- Processes files with offline attribute set.
   - /f:file -- Reads file list from the specified file.
   - /c:string -- Uses specified text as a literal search string.
   - /g:file -- Gets search strings from the specified file.
   - /d:dirlist -- Searches a comma-delimited list of directories.
   - /a:ColorAttribute -- Specifies color attributes with two hexadecimal digits.
   - strings -- Specified text to be searched for in FileName.
   - [Drive:][Path] FileName [...] -- Specifies a file or files to search.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using regular expressions with findstr

   Findstr is capable of finding, in any ASCII files, the exact specified text. However,
   sometimes only partial information can be searcheed. In such cases, findstr has the
   powerful capability to search for patterns of text using regular expressions.

   Regular expressions are a notation for specifying patterns of text, as opposed to exact
   strings of characters. The notation uses literal characters and metacharacters. Every
   character that does not have special meaning in the regular expression syntax is a
   literal character and matches an occurrence of that character. For example, letters and
   numbers are literal characters. A metacharacter is a symbol with special meaning (an
   operator or delimiter) in the regular-expression syntax.

   The following table lists the metacharacters that findstr accepts.

      Character - Value

      . - Wildcard: any character
      * - Repeat: zero or more occurrences of previous character or class
      ^ - Line position: beginning of line
      $ - Line position: end of line
      [class] - Character class: any one character in set
      [^class] - Inverse class: any one character not in set
      [x-y] - Range: any characters within the specified range
      \x - Escape: literal use of metacharacter x
      \ - Word position: end of word

   The special characters in regular expression syntax are most powerful when used together.
   For example, the following combination of the wildcard character (.) and repeat (*)
   character match any string of characters:

      .*

   Use the following expression as part of a larger expression that matches any string
   beginning with "b" and ending with "ing":

      b.*ing

   Examples:

   Use spaces to separate multiple search strings unless the argument is prefixed with /c.
   To search for "hello" or "there" in file x.y, type:

      findstr "hello there" x.y

   To search for "hello there" in file x.y, type:

      findstr /c:"hello there" x.y

   To find all occurrences of the word "Windows" (with an initial capital W) in the file
   Proposal.txt, type the following:

      findstr Windows proposal.txt

   To search every file in the current directory and all subdirectories that contained the
   word Windows, regardless of the letter case, type the following:

      findstr /s /i Windows *.*

   To find all occurrences of lines that contain the word "FOR", preceded by any number of
   spaces, (as in a computer program loop), and to include the line number where each
   occurrence is found, type the following:

      findstr /b /n /c:" *FOR" *.bas

   To search for several different items in the same set of files, create a text file that
   contains each search criterion on a new line. The exact files to search can be specified.
   To use the search criteria in the file Finddata.txt, search the files listed in
   Filelist.txt, and then store the results in the file Results.out, type the following:

      findstr /g:finddata.txt /f:filelist.txt > results.out

   To find the word 'computer' in every file in the current directory and all subdirectories,
   regardless of the letter case, type the following:

      findstr /s /i /m "\" *.*

   To find all words that begin with the letters 'comp', such as 'computer' and 'compliment'
   and 'compete', type the following:

      findstr /s /i /m "\


 
Firewall Settings
This is a short cut to start up the Firewall Settings dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
FIREWALL.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in
a CMD window.

 
FOR
Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.
This can be run either in a batch file or at a command prompt.

   for {%variable|%%variable} in (set) do command [ CommandLineOptions]

   Parameters:

   - {%variable|%%variable} -- Required. Represents a replaceable parameter. Use
        %variable to carry out for from the command prompt. Use %%variable to
        carry out the for command within a batch file. Variables are case-sensitive
        and must be represented with an alpha value, such as %A, %B or %C.
   - (set) -- Required. Specifies one or more files, directories, range of values
              or text strings to process with the specified command. The parentheses
              are required.
   - command -- Required. Specifies the command to carry out on each file, directory,
                range of values, or text string included in the specified (set).
   - CommandLineOptions -- Specifies any command-line options to use with the
                           specified command.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   To use the FOR command in a batch program, specify %%variable instead of
   %variable. Variable names are case sensitive, thus %i is different from %I.

   The following attributes apply to the for command:

   - The for command replaces %variable or %%variable with each text string in the
     specified set until the command processes all of the files.
   - For variable names are case-sensitive, global, and no more than 52 total can
     be active at any one time.
   - To avoid confusion with the batch parameters %0 through %9, use any character
     for variable except the numerals 0 through 9. For simple batch files, a single
     character such as %%f works.
   - Multiple values for variable can be used in complex batch files to distinguish
     different replaceable variables.


   Specifying a group of files:
   ============================
   The set parameter can represent a single group of files or several groups of
   files. Wildcards (* and ?) can be used to specify a file set. The following are
   valid file sets:

      - (*.doc)
      - (*.doc *.txt *.me)
      - (jan*.doc jan*.rpt feb*.doc feb*.rpt)
      - (ar??1991.* ap??1991.*)

   The first value in set replaces %variable or %%variable, and then the specified
   command processes this value. This continues until all of the files (or groups
   of files) that correspond to the set value are processed.


   Using the in and do keywords:
   =============================
   In and do are not parameters, but they must be used with for. If either words
   are omitted, an error message appears.


   Using additional forms of for:
   ==============================
   If command extensions are enabled (i.e. the default), the following
   additional forms of for are supported:


     Directories only:
     -----------------
       If set contains wildcards (* and ?), the specified command executes for each
       directory (instead of a set of files in a specified directory) that matches
       set. The syntax is:

          for /D {%% | %}variable in (set) do command [CommandLineOptions]


     Recursive:
     ----------
       Walks the directory tree rooted at [Drive:]Path, executing the for statement
       in each directory of the tree. If no directory is specified after /R, the
       current directory is assumed. If set is just a single period (.), it only
       enumerates the directory tree. The syntax is:

          for /R [[Drive :]Path] {%% | %}variable in (set)
              do command [CommandLineOptions]


     Iterating a range of values:
     ----------------------------
       Use an iterative variable to set the starting value (start#) and then step
       through a set range of values until the value exceeds the set ending value
       (end#). /L will execute the iterative by comparing start# with end#. If
       start# is less than end# the command will execute. When the iterative
       variable exceeds end# the command shell exists the loop. A negative step# can
       be used to step through a range in decreasing values. For example, (1,1,5)
       generates the sequence 1 2 3 4 5 and (5,-1,1) generates the sequence
       (5 4 3 2 1). The syntax is:

          for /L {%% | %}variable in (start#,step#,end#)
              do command [CommandLineOptions]


     Iterating and file parsing:
     ---------------------------
       Use file parsing to process command output, strings and file content. Use
       iterative variables to define the content or strings to examine and use
       the various ParsingKeywords options to further modify the parsing. Use the
       ParsingKeywords token option to specify which tokens should be passed as
       iterator variables. Note that when used without the token option, /F will
       only examine the first token.

       File parsing consists of reading the output, string or file content, breaking
       it up into individual lines of text and then parsing each line into zero or
       more tokens. The for loop is then called with the iterator variable value set
       to the token. By default, /F passes the first blank separated token from each
       line of each file. Blank lines are skipped. The different syntaxes are:

          for /F ["ParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in (filenameset)
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

          for /F ["ParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in ("LiteralString")
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

          for /F ["ParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in ('command')
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

       The filenameset argument specifies one or more file names. Each file is opened,
       read and processed before going on to the next file in filenameset. To override
       the default parsing behavior, specify "ParsingKeywords". This is a quoted string
       that contains one or more keywords to specify different parsing options.

       When using the usebackq option, use one of the following syntaxes:

          for /F ["usebackqParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in ("filenameset")
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

          for /F ["usebackqParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in ('LiteralString')
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

          for /F ["usebackqParsingKeywords"] {%% | %}variable in (`command`)
              do command [CommandLineOptions]

       The following table lists the parsing keywords for ParsingKeywords

          - Keyword - Description
          - eol=c - Specifies an end of line character (just one character).
          - skip=n - Specifies the number of lines to skip at the beginning of the file.
          - delims=xxx - Specifies a delimiter set. This replaces the default delimiter
                         set of space and tab.
          - tokens=x,y,m-n - Specifies which tokens from each line are to be passed to
                             the for body for each iteration. As a result, additional
                             variable names are allocated. The m-n form is a range,
                             specifying the mth through the nth tokens. If the last
                             character in the tokens= string is an asterisk (*), an
                             additional variable is allocated and receives the remaining
                             text on the line after the last token that is parsed.
          - usebackq - Specifies that quotation marks can be used to quote file names
                       in filenameset, a back quoted string is executed as a command,
                       and a single quoted string is a literal string command.

          An example:
          -----------

             FOR /F "eol=; tokens=2,3* delims=, " %i in (myfile.txt) do @echo %i %j %k

          This would parse each line in myfile.txt, ignoring lines that begin with
          a semicolon, passing the 2nd and 3rd token from each line to the for
          body, with tokens delimited by commas and/or spaces. Notice the for
          body statements reference %i to get the 2nd token, %j to get the
          third token, and %k to get all remaining tokens after the third. For
          file names that contain spaces, quote the file names with double
          quotes. In order to use double quotes in this manner, use the usebackq
          option, otherwise the double quotes will be interpreted as defining a
          literal string to parse.

          %i is explicitly declared in the for statement and the %j and %k
          are implicitly declared via the tokens= option. Up to 26 tokens can
          be used via the tokens= line, provided it does not cause an
          attempt to declare a variable higher than the letter 'z' or 'Z'.
          Remember, FOR variables are single-letter, case sensitive, global,
          with a maximum of 52 total active variables at any one time.

          Also available is the FOR /F parsing logic on an immediate string, by
          making the file nameset between the parenthesis a quoted string,
          using single quote characters. It will be treated as a single line
          of input from a file and parsed.

          Finally, the FOR /F command to parse the output of a command is
          available. Make the file nameset between the parenthesis a back
          quoted string. It will be treated as a command line, which is
          passed to a child CMD.EXE and the output is captured into memory
          and parsed as if it was a file. So the following example:

             FOR /F "usebackq delims==" %i IN (`set`) DO @echo %i

          would enumerate the environment variable names in the current
          environment.

     Variable substitution:
     ----------------------
       Substitution modifiers for for variable references have been enhanced. The
       following table lists optional syntax (for any variable I).

          Variable with modifier - Description

          %~I - Expands %I which removes any surrounding quotation marks ("").

          %~fI - Expands %I to a fully qualified path name.

          %~dI - Expands %I to a drive letter only.

          %~pI - Expands %I to a path only.

          %~nI - Expands %I to a file name only.

          %~xI - Expands %I to a file extension only.

          %~sI - Expands path to contain short names only.

          %~aI - Expands %I to the file attributes of file.

          %~tI - Expands %I to the date and time of file.

          %~zI - Expands %I to the size of file.

          %~$PATH:I - Searches the directories listed in the PATH environment
          variable and expands %I to the fully qualified name of the first one
          found. If the environment variable name is not defined or the file is
          not found by the search, this modifier expands to the empty string.

       The following table lists modifier combinations to get compound results.

          Variable with combined modifiers - Description

          %~dpI - Expands %I to a drive letter and path only.

          %~nxI - Expands %I to a file name and extension only.

          %~fsI - Expands %I to a full path name with short names only.

          %~dp$PATH:I - Searches the directories listed in the PATH environment
          variable for %I and expands to the drive letter and path of the first
          one found.

          %~ftzaI - Expands %I to an output line that is like dir.

          In the above examples, optionally replace %I and PATH by other valid
          values. A valid for variable name terminates the %~ syntax.

       By using uppercase variable names such as %I, the code is more readable and avoids
       confusion with the modifiers, which are not case-sensitive.


     Parsing a string:
     -----------------
       Use the for /F parsing logic on an immediate string by wrapping the filenameset
       between the parentheses in single quotation marks (i.e. 'filenameset').
       Filenameset is treated as a single line of input from a file, and then it is parsed.


     Parsing output:
     ---------------
       /F can be used to parse the output of a command by making the filenameset between
       the parenthesis a back quoted string. It is treated as a command line, which is
       passed to a child Cmd.exe and the output is captured into memory and parsed as
       if it were a file.


       Examples:

     To use for in a batch file, use the following syntax:

        for %%variable in (set) do command [CommandLineOptions]

     To display the contents of all the files in the current directory that have the
     extension .doc or .txt using the replaceable variable %f, type:

        for %f in (*.doc *.txt) do type %f

        In the preceding example, each file that has the .doc or .txt extension in the
        current directory is substituted for the %f variable until the contents of every
        file are displayed. To use this command in a batch file, replace every occurrence
        of %f with %%f. Otherwise, the variable is ignored and an error message is displayed.

     To parse a file, ignoring commented lines, type:

        for /F "eol=; tokens=2,3* delims=," %i in (myfile.txt) do @echo %i %j %k

     This command parses each line in Myfile.txt, ignoring lines that begin with a semicolon
     and passing the second and third token from each line to the FOR body (tokens are
     delimited by commas or spaces). The body of the FOR statement references %i to get the
     second token, %j to get the third token, and %k to get all of the remaining tokens.
     If the file names contains spaces, use quotation marks around the text (for example,
     "File Name"). To use quotation marks, use usebackq. Otherwise, the quotation marks are
     interpreted as defining a literal string to parse.

        %i is explicitly declared in the FOR statement, and %j and %k are implicitly
        declared by using tokens=. Up to 26 tokens using tokens= can be used, provided that
        it does not cause an attempt to declare a variable higher than the letter 'z' or 'Z'.

     To parse the output of a command by placing filenameset between the parentheses, type:

        for /F "usebackq delims==" %i IN (`set`) DO @echo %i

        This example enumerates the environment variable names in the current environment.

 
FORMAT
Formats a disk for use with Windows XP.

   format volume [/fs:file-system] [/v:label] [/q] [/a:UnitSize] [/c] [/x]
   format volume [/v:label] [/q] [/f:size]
   format volume [/v:label] [/q] [/t:tracks /n:sectors]
   format volume [/v:label] [/q]
   format volume [/q]

   Parameters:

   - volume -- Specifies the mount point, volume name, or drive letter of the drive to format.
               If no command-line options are given, format uses the volume type to determine
               the default format for the disk.
   - /fs:file-system -- Specifies the file system to use FAT, FAT32, or NTFS Floppy disks can
                        use only the FAT file system.
   - /v:label -- Specifies the volume label. If /v command-line option is omitted or it is
                 used without specifying a volume label, format prompts for the volume label
                 after the formatting is completed. Use the syntax /v: to prevent the prompt
                 for a volume label. If more than one disk is formatted by using one format
                 command, all of the disks will be given the same volume label. For more
                 information about disk volume labels, click Dir, Label, and Vol in the Related
                 Topics list.
   - /a:UnitSize -- Specifies the allocation unit size to use on FAT, FAT32, or NTFS volumes.
                    If UnitSize is not specified, it is chosen based on volume size. The
                    following table lists valid values for UnitSize.

        Value - Description

        512 - Creates 512 bytes per cluster.
        1024 - Creates 1024 bytes per cluster.
        2048 - Creates 2048 bytes per cluster.
        4096 - Creates 4096 bytes per cluster.
        8192 - Creates 8192 bytes per cluster.
        16K - Creates 16 kilobytes per cluster.
        32K - Creates 32 kilobytes per cluster.
        64K - Creates 64 kilobytes per cluster.

   - /f:size -- Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format. When possible, use this
                command-line option instead of the /t and /n command-line options. Windows
                accepts the following value for size:

        1440 or 1440k or 1440kb or 1.44 or 1.44m or 1.44mb
        1.44-MB, double-sided, quadruple-density, 3.5-inch disk

   - /q -- Performs a quick format. Deletes the file table and the root directory of a
           previously formatted volume but does not perform a sector by sector scan for bad
           areas. The /q command-line option should be used to format only previously
           formatted volumes that are known to be in good condition.
   - /t:tracks -- Specifies the number of tracks on the disk. When possible, use the /f
                  command-line option instead of this command-line option. If the /t
                  command-line option is used, the /n command-line option must also be used.
                  These two command-line options provide an alternative method of specifying
                  the size of the disk being formatted. The /f command-line option cannot be
                  used with the /t command-line option.
   - /n:sectors -- Specifies the number of sectors per track. When possible, use the /f
                   command-line option instead of this command-line option. If the /n
                   command-line option is used, the /t command-line option must also be used.
                   These two command-line options provide an alternative method of
                   specifying the size of the disk being formatted. The /f command-line
                   option cannot be used with the /n command-line option.
   - /c -- NTFS only. Files created on the new volume will be compressed by default.
   - /x -- Causes the volume to dismount, if necessary, before it is formatted. Any open
           handles to the volume will no longer be valid.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using format at the Recovery Console:
   =====================================
   The format command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Administrative privileges:
   ==========================
   Only a member of the Administrators group can format a hard drive.

   Using format :
   =============
   The format command creates a new root directory and file system for the disk. It can also
   check for bad areas on the disk, and it can delete all data on the disk. To be able to use
   a new disk, this command must first be used to format the disk.

   Typing a volume label:
   ======================
   After formatting a floppy disk, format displays the following message:

      Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)?

   The volume label can be a maximum of 11 characters (including spaces). If no volume label
   is desired, just press ENTER. For information about volume labels, click label in the
   Related Topics list.

   Formatting a hard disk
   =======================
   When formatting a hard disk, format displays a message of the following form before
   attempting to format the hard disk:

      WARNING, ALL DATA ON nonremovable DISK
      DRIVE x: WILL BE LOST!
      Proceed with Format (Y/N)?_

   To format the hard disk, press Y. To not format the hard disk, press N. Administrator
   rights are required to format a hard disk.

   Unit size:
   ==========
   FAT file systems restrict the number of clusters to no more than 65526. FAT32 file
   systems restrict the number of clusters to between 65527 and 4177917.

   NTFS compression is not supported for allocation unit sizes above 4096.

   Format messages:
   ================
   When formatting is complete, format displays messages showing the total disk space,
   any space marked as defective, and the space available for the files.

   Quick formatting:
   =================
   The formatting process can be sped up by using the /q command-line option. Use this
   command-line option only if there are no bad sectors on the hard disk.

   Using format with a reassigned drive or a network drive:
   ========================================================
   The format command should not be used on a drive prepared by using the subst command.
   Disks cannot be formatted over a network.

   Format exit codes:
   ==================
   The following table lists each exit code and a brief description of its meaning.

      Exit code - Description

      0 - The format operation was successful.
      1 - Incorrect parameters were supplied.
      4 - A fatal error occurred (any error other than 0, 1, or 5).
      5 - The user pressed N in response to the prompt "Proceed with Format (Y/N)?" to stop
          the process.

   These exit codes can be checked by using the errorlevel condition with the if batch command.

   Examples:

   To format a new floppy disk in drive A using the default size, type:

      format a:

   To perform a quick format operation on a previously formatted disk in drive A, type:

      format a: /q

   To format a floppy disk in drive A and assign it the volume label "DATA," type:

      format a: /v:DATA

 
Shared Folder
This is a short cut to start up the Shared Folder dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
DSMGMT.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
FTP
Transfers files to and from a computer running a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server service
such as Internet Information Services.

   ftp [-v] [-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-s:FileName] [-a] [-w:WindowSize] [-A] [Host]

   Parameters:

   - -v -- Suppresses the display of FTP server responses.
   - -d -- Enables debugging, displaying all commands passed between the FTP client and FTP
           server.
   - -i -- Disables interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.
   - -n -- Suppresses the ability to log on automatically when the initial connection is made.
   - -g -- Disables file name globbing. Glob permits the use of the asterisk (*) and question
            mark (?) as wildcard characters in local file and path names. For more information,
            see Ftp: Glob
   - -s:FileName -- Specifies a text file that contains ftp commands. These commands run
                    automatically after ftp starts. This parameter allows no spaces. Use this
                    parameter instead of redirection (<).
   - -a -- Specifies that any local interface can be used when binding the FTP data connection.
   - -w:WindowSize -- Specifies the size of the transfer buffer. The default window size is
                      4096 bytes.
   - -A -- Logs onto the FTP server as anonymous.
   - Host -- Specifies the computer name, IP address, or IPv6 address of the FTP server to
             which to connect. The host name or address, if specified, must be the last
             parameter on the line.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Ftp can be used interactively or in batch mode by processing ASCII text files.

   ftp parameters MUST be prefixed with a hyphen (-) rather than a slash (/).

   Ftp command-line parameters are case-sensitive.

   This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as
   a component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections

   Ftp can be used interactively. After it is started, ftp creates a subenvironment in which
   ftp commands can be used. To return to the command prompt, type the quit command. When the
   ftp subenvironment is running, it is indicated by the ftp > command prompt.

   For more information about ftp subcommands, see Related Topics.

   Ftp supports the use of IPv6 when the IPv6 protocol is installed. For more information,
   see IP version 6 and IPv6 applications

   Examples:

   To log on to the FTP server named ftp.example.microsoft.com, type the following command:

      ftp ftp.example.microsoft.com

   To anonymously log on to the FTP server named ftp.example.microsoft.com, type the following
   command:

      ftp -A ftp.example.microsoft.com

   To log on to the FTP server named ftp.example.microsoft.com and run the ftp commands contained
   in a file named Resynch.txt, type the following command:

      ftp -s:resynch.txt ftp.example.microsoft.com

 
FTYPE
Displays or modifies file types used in file name extension associations.

   Ftype [FileType[=[OpenCommandString]]]

   Parameters:

   - FileType --  Specifies the file type to display or change.
   - OpenCommandString --  Specifies the open command to use when opening files of this type.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, ftype displays the file types that have open command strings defined.

   Within an OpenCommandString, ftype substitutes the following variables:

      - %0 or %1 are replaced with the file name to open.
      - %* is replaced with all of the parameters.
      - %~n is replaced with all of the remaining parameters, starting with the nth parameter,
            where n can be any number from 2 to 9.
      - %2 is replaced with the first parameter, %3 with the second, and so on.

   Examples:

   To display the current file types that have open command strings defined, type:

      ftype

   To display the current open command string for a specific file type, type:

      ftype FileType

   To delete the open command string for a specific file type, type:

      ftype FileType=

   Type:

      ASSOC .pl=PerlScript
      FTYPE PerlScript=perl.exe %1 %*

      To invoke the Perl script, then type:

        script.pl 1 2 3

   To eliminate the need to type the extensions, type:

      set PATHEXT=.pl;%PATHEXT%

   To invoke the Perl script, type:

      script 1 2 3

 
GETMAC
This is a short cut to display the mac address(es) of your network adapter(s).

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
GETMAC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
GOTO
Within a batch program, directs Windows XP to a line identified by a label.

   goto label

   Parameters:

   - label --  Specifies the line in a batch program to go to.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   When the label is found, it processes the commands that begin on the next line.

   Working with command extensions:
   ================================
   If command extensions are enabled (i.e., the default) and the goto command is specified with a target label of :EOF, control is transfered to the end of the current batch script file and exit the batch script file without defining a label. When goto with the :EOF label is used, a colon must be inserted before the label. For example:

      goto :EOF

   For a description of extensions to the call command that make this feature useful, see cmd in Related Topics.

   Using valid label values:
   =========================
   The label parameter can have spaces but no other separators (ex. semicolons or equal signs). The goto command uses only the first eight characters of a label. For example, the following labels are equivalent and resolve to :hithere0:

      :hithere0
      :hithere01
      :hithere02

   Matching label with the label in the batch program:
   ===================================================
   The label value specified must match a label in the batch program. The label within the batch program must begin with a colon (:). Windows XP recognizes a batch program line beginning with a colon (:) as a label and does not process it as a command. If a line begins with a colon, any commands on that line are ignored. If the batch program does not contain the label specified, the batch program stops and displays the following message:

      Label not found

   Using goto for conditional operations:
   ======================================
   goto can be used with other commands to perform conditional operations. For more information about using goto for conditional operations, see if in Related Topics.

   Examples:

   The following batch program formats a disk in drive A as a system disk. If the operation is successful, the goto command directs Windows XP to the :end label:

      echo off
      format a: /s
      if not errorlevel 1 goto end
      echo An error occurred during formatting.
      :end

 
GRAFTABL
Enables the ability to display an extended character set in graphics mode.

   graftabl [xxx] [/status]

   Parameters:

   - xxx -- Specifies the code page for which the appearance of extended characters in
            graphics mode is to be defined. The following table lists each valid code
            page identification number and its Country/Region or language.

      Value - Country/Region

      437 - United States
      850 - Multilingual (Latin I)
      852 - Slavic (Latin II)
      855 - Cyrillic (Russian)
      857 - Turkish
      860 - Portuguese
      861 - Icelandic
      863 - Canadian-French
      865 - Nordic
      866 - Russian
      869 - Modern Greek

   - /status -- Identifies the code page that graftabl is using.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   For information about using code pages, see chcp or mode (set device code pages) in
   Related Topics.

   Graftabl does not change the console input code page. Graftabl affects only the monitor
   display of extended characters of the code page specified. To change the code page being
   used, use the mode or chcp command.

   Understanding graftabl exit codes:
   ==================================
   The following table lists each exit code and a brief description of it.

      Exit code - Description

      0 - Character set was loaded successfully. No previous code page was loaded.
      1 - An incorrect parameter was specified. No action was taken.
      2 - A file error occurred.

   The errorlevel parameter can be used on the if command line in a batch program to process
   exit codes returned by graftabl.

   Examples:

   To load the graphics character set for code page 437 (United States) into memory, type:

      graftabl 437

   To load the graphics character set for code page 850 (multilingual) into memory, type:

      graftabl 850

 
HELP
Provides help information for Windows XP commands.

  HELP [command]

   Parameters:

    command - displays help information on that command.

 
IF
Performs conditional processing in batch programs.

   if [not] errorlevel number command [else expression]
   if [not] string1==string2 command [else expression]
   if [not] exist FileName command [else expression]
   If command extensions are enabled, use the following syntax:
   if [/i] string1 CompareOp string2 command [else expression]
   if cmdextversion number command [else expression]
   if defined variable command [else expression]

   Parameters:

   - NOT -- Specifies that the command should be carried out only if the condition is false.
   - ERRORLEVEL number -- Specifies a true condition only if the previous program run by
                          Cmd.exe returned an exit code equal to or greater than number.
   - command -- Specifies the command that should be carried out if the preceding condition
                is met.
   - string1==string2 -- Specifies a true condition only if string1 and string2 are the same.
                         These values can be literal strings or batch variables (for example,
                         %1). Quotation marks around literal strings are not needed.
   - EXIST FileName -- Specifies a true condition if FileName exists.
   - CompareOp -- Specifies a three-letter comparison operator. The following table lists
                  valid values for CompareOp.

        Operator - Description

        EQU - equal to
        NEQ - not equal to
        LSS - less than
        LEQ - less than or equal to
        GTR - greater than
        GEQ - greater than or equal to

   - /i -- Forces string comparisons to ignore case. Use /i on the string1==string2 form of if.
           These comparisons are generic, in that if both string1 and string2 are both comprised
           of all numeric digits, the strings are converted to numbers and a numeric comparison
           is performed.
   - cmdextversion number -- Specifies a true condition only if the internal version number
                             associated with the Command Extensions feature of Cmd.exe is equal
                             to or greater than number. The first version is 1. It is
                             incremented by one when significant enhancements are added to the
                             command extensions. The cmdextversion conditional is never true
                             when command extensions are disabled (by default, command extensions
                             are enabled).
   - defined variable -- Specifies a true condition if variable is defined.
   - expression -- Specifies a command-line command and any parameters to be passed to the
                   command in an else clause.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   If the condition specified in an if command is true, the command that follows the condition is
   carried out. If the condition is false, the command in the if clause is ignored, and executes
   any command in the else clause, if one has been specified.

   When a program stops, it returns an exit code. Use exit codes as conditions by using the
   errorlevel parameter.

   Using defined variable:
   =======================
   If a defined variable is used, the following three variables are added:

      %errorlevel%, %cmdcmdline%, and %cmdextversion%.

   %errorlevel% expands into a string representation of the current value of errorlevel, provided
   that there is not already an environment variable with the name ERRORLEVEL, in which case the
   ERRORLEVEL value is gotten instead. The following example illustrates how to use errorlevel
   after running a batch program:

      goto answer%errorlevel%
      :answer0
      echo Program had return code 0
      :answer1
      echo Program had return code 1
      goto end
      :end
      echo done!

   The CompareOp comparison operators cn be used as follows:

      if %errorlevel% LEQ 1 goto okay

   %cmdcmdline% expands into the original command line passed to Cmd.exe prior to any processing
   by Cmd.exe, provided that there is not already an environment variable with the name
   cmdcmdline, in which case the cmdcmdline value is goten instead.

   %cmdextversion% expands into the a string representation of the current value of cmdextversion,
   provided that there is not already an environment variable with the name CMDEXTVERSION, in
   which case the CMDEXTVERSION value is gotten instead.

   Using the else clause:
   ======================
   The else clause must be used on the same line as the command after the if. For example:

      IF EXIST filename. (
      del filename.
      ) ELSE (
      echo filename. missing.
      )

   The following code does not work because the del command must be terminated by a new line:

      IF EXIST filename. del filename. ELSE echo filename. missing

   The following code does not work because the else clause must be used on the same line as the
   end of the if command:

      IF EXIST filename. del filename.
      ELSE echo filename. missing

   To format it all on a single line, use the following form of the original statement:

      IF EXIST filename. (del filename.) ELSE echo filename. missing

   Examples:

   If the file Product.dat cannot be found, the following message appears:

   if not exist product.dat echo Can't find data file

   If an error occurs during the formatting of the disk in drive A, the following example
   displays an error message:

      :begin
      @echo off
      format a: /s
      if not errorlevel 1 goto end
      echo An error occurred during formatting.
      :end
      echo End of batch program.

   If no error occurs, the error message does not appear.

   The if command cannot be ysed to test directly for a directory, but the null (NUL) device
   does exist in every directory. As a result, it is possible to test for the null device to
   determine whether a directory exists. The following example tests for the existence of a
   directory:

      if exist c:\mydir\nul goto process

 
Internet Explorer Options
This is a short cut to start up the INTERNET OPTIONS portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
INETCPL.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

Internet Explorer
These are the short cut keys available in Internet Explorer.
ALT + ARROW LEFT
Go back to the previous page (if there is one in the History list)
ALT + ARROW RIGHT
Go forward to the next page (if there is one in the History list)
ALT + HOME
Go to the Home page (as selected in the Internet Options, not the home page of the current web site)
BACKSPACE
Go back to the previous page (if there is one in the History list)
CTRL + A
Select all text/graphics on the current page
CTRL + C
Copy selected items to the Windows clipboard
CTRL + D
Open the Add to Favorites dialog for the current web page
CTRL + E
Open the Search bar
CTRL + ENTER
Adds the http://www. (url) .com
CTRL + F
Start a Find/Search for text on the current page
CTRL + H
Open the History bar
CTRL + I
Open the Favorites bar
CTRL + N
Open a new window
CTRL + O
Open the Open a new Webpage dialog to go to another URL
CTRL + P
Print the current web page or active frame
CTRL + S
Save the current web page
CTRL + TAB
Move forward between frames
CTRL + V
Insert contents of the Windows clipboard
CTRL + W
Close the browser window in focus
END
Move to the end of a document
ENTER
Activate a selected link
ESC
Stop downloading a web page
F1
Display Internet Explorer Help
F4
Display list of typed addresses
F5
Refresh the current page
F6
Toggle focus between the Address bar (and highlight the entire URL text) and the web page
F11
Toggle full-screen view
HOME
Move to the beginning of a document
SHIFT + CLICK
Open link in new window
SHIFT + CTRL + TAB
Move back between frames
SHIFT + F10
Open the context menu for the current web page (then use the up/down arrows to navigate the menu)
SHIFT + TAB
Move back through the items on a web page
TAB
Move forward through items on a web page

 
Regional Settings
This is a short cut to start up the REGIONAL Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
INTL.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
IPCONFIG
Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Used without parameters,
ipconfig displays the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for all adapters.

   ipconfig [/all] [/renew [Adapter]] [/release [Adapter]] [/flushdns] [/displaydns]
            [/registerdns] [/showclassid Adapter] [/setclassid Adapter [ClassID]]

   Parameters:

   - /all -- Displays the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters. Without this parameter,
             ipconfig displays only the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway values
             for each adapter. Adapters can represent physical interfaces, such as installed
             network adapters, or logical interfaces, such as dial-up connections.
   - /renew [Adapter] -- Renews DHCP configuration for all adapters (if an adapter is not
                         specified) or for a specific adapter if the Adapter parameter is
                         included. This parameter is available only on computers with adapters
                         that are configured to obtain an IP address automatically. To specify
                         an adapter name, type the adapter name that appears when using
                         ipconfig without parameters.
   - /release [Adapter] -- Sends a DHCPRELEASE message to the DHCP server to release the current
                           DHCP configuration and discard the IP address configuration for
                           either all adapters (if an adapter is not specified) or for a
                           specific adapter if the Adapter parameter is included. This parameter
                           disables TCP/IP for adapters configured to obtain an IP address
                           automatically. To specify an adapter name, type the adapter name that
                           appears when using ipconfig without parameters.
   - /flushdns -- Flushes and resets the contents of the DNS client resolver cache. During DNS
                  troubleshooting, this procedure can be used to discard negative cache entries
                  from the cache, as well as any other entries that have been added dynamically.
   - /displaydns -- Displays the contents of the DNS client resolver cache, which includes both
                    entries preloaded from the local Hosts file and any recently obtained
                    resource records for name queries resolved by the computer. The DNS Client
                    service uses this information to resolve frequently queried names quickly,
                    before querying its configured DNS servers.
   - /registerdns -- Initiates manual dynamic registration for the DNS names and IP addresses
                     that are configured at a computer. This parameter can be used to
                     troubleshoot a failed DNS name registration or resolve a dynamic update
                     problem between a client and the DNS server without rebooting the client
                     computer. The DNS settings in the advanced properties of the TCP/IP
                     protocol determine which names are registered in DNS.
   - /showclassid Adapter -- Displays the DHCP class ID for a specified adapter. To see the
                             DHCP class ID for all adapters, use the asterisk (*) wildcard
                             character in place of Adapter. This parameter is available only
                             on computers with adapters that are configured to obtain an IP
                             address automatically.
   - /setclassid Adapter [ClassID] -- Configures the DHCP class ID for a specified adapter.
                                      To set the DHCP class ID for all adapters, use the
                                      asterisk (*) wildcard character in place of Adapter.
                                      This parameter is available only on computers with
                                      adapters that are configured to obtain an IP address
                                      automatically. If a DHCP class ID is not specified,
                                      the current class ID is removed.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The ipconfig command is the command-line equivalent to the winipcfg command, which is
   available in Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98, and Windows 95. Although Windows XP
   does not include a graphical equivalent to the winipcfg command, Network Connections can
   be used to view and renew an IP address. To do this, open Network Connections, right-click
   a network connection, click Status, and then click the Support tab.

   This command is most useful on computers that are configured to obtain an IP address
   automatically. This enables users to determine which TCP/IP configuration values have been
   configured by DHCP, Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), or an alternate configuration.

   If the Adapter name contains any spaces, use quotation marks around the adapter name
   (i.e., "Adapter Name").

   For adapter names, ipconfig supports the use of the asterisk (*) wildcard character to
   specify either adapters with names that begin with a specified string or adapters with
   names that contain a specified string. For example, Local* matches all adapters that start
   with the string Local and *Con* matches all adapters that contain the string Con.

   This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as
   a component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections

   Examples:

   To display the basic TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:

      ipconfig

   To display the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:

      ipconfig /all

   To renew a DHCP-assigned IP address configuration for only the Local Area Connection adapter,
   type:

      ipconfig /renew "Local Area Connection"

   To flush the DNS resolver cache when troubleshooting DNS name resolution problems, type:

      ipconfig /flushdns

   To display the DHCP class ID for all adapters with names that start with Local, type:

      ipconfig /showclassid Local*

   To set the DHCP class ID for the Local Area Connection adapter to TEST, type:

      ipconfig /setclassid "Local Area Connection" TEST

 
Joystick Settings
This is a short cut to start up the JOYSTICK Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
JOY.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Keyboard Settings
This is a short cut to start up the KEYBOARD Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
'MAIN.CPL KEYBOARD' and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
LABEL
Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label (i.e., the name) of a disk.

   label [Drive:][label]
   label [/MP][volume][label]

   Parameters:

   - Drive: -- Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon) of the disk to name.
   - label -- Specifies the name for the volume.
   - /MP -- Specifies that the volume should be treated as a mount point or volume name.
   - volume -- Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name.
              If a volume name is specified, the /MP parameter is unnecessary.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, label changes the current volume label or deletes the existing label.

   Windows displays the volume label as part of the directory listing. If a volume serial number
   exists, Windows displays this number as well.

   Label command messages
   =======================
   If a label is not specified, label displays a message in the following format:

      Volume in drive A is xxxxxxxxxxx
      Volume Serial Number is xxxx-xxxx
      Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)?

   The "Volume Serial Number" part of the message is not displayed if the disk has no serial
   number.

   The volume label can be typed or just press ENTER to delete the current label. If a disk has
   a label and ENTER is pressed for none, label prompts with the following message:

      Delete current volume label (Y/N)?
      Press Y to delete the label; press N to keep the label.

   Limitations on volume label names
   ==================================
   A volume label can contain as many as 32 characters for NTFS volumes and as many as 11
   characters for FAT volumes and can include spaces but no tabs.

   FAT volume labels cannot contain any of the following characters:

      * ? / \ | . , ; -- + = [ ] < > "

   This limitation does not apply to NTFS volumes.

   For FAT volumes, volume labels are stored as uppercase regardless of whether they contain
   lowercase letters. NTFS volume labels retain and display the case used when the label was
   created.

   Examples:

   To label a disk in drive A that contains sales information for July, type:

      label a:sales-july

 
Mouse Settings
This is a short cut to start up the MOUSE Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
MAIN.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
MD
Creates a directory.

   mkdir [Drive:]Path

   md [Drive:]Path

   Parameters:

   - Drive: -- Specifies the drive on which to create the new directory.
   - Path -- Required. Specifies the name and location of the new directory.
             The maximum length of any single path is determined by the file system.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   When command extensions are enabled (i.e. the default), a single md command can
   be used to create intermediate directories in a specified path. For more
   information about enabling and disabling command extensions, see cmd in
   Related Topics.

   Examples:

   To create a directory named Taxes with a subdirectory named Property, which
   contains a subdirectory named Current, type:

      md \Taxes\Property\Current

   This is the same as typing the following sequence of commands with command
   extensions disabled:

      md \Taxes
      cd \Taxes
      md Property
      cd Property
      md Current

 
MKDIR
Creates a directory.

See MD

 
MODE
Displays system status, changes system settings, or reconfigures ports or devices.

   To configure a serial communications port

   mode comm[:] [baud=b] [parity=p] [data=d] [stop=s] [to={on|off}] [xon={on|off}]
        [odsr={on|off}] [octs={on|off}] [dtr={on|off|hs}] [rts={on|off|hs|tg}]
        [idsr={on|off}]

   Parameters:

   - comm[:] -- Specifies the number of the asynchronous-communications (COM) port.
   - baud=b -- Specifies the transmission rate in bits per second. The following table
               lists valid abbreviations for b and its related rate.

        Value - Rate

        11 - 110 baud
        15 - 150 baud
        30 - 300 baud
        60 - 600 baud
        12 - 1200 baud
        24 - 2400 baud
        48 - 4800 baud
        96 - 9600 baud
        19 - 19,200 baud

   - parity=p -- Specifies how the system uses the parity bit to check for transmission
                 errors. The following table lists valid p values. The default value is e.
                 Not all computers support the values m and s.

        Value - Description

        n - none
        e - even
        o - odd
        m - mark
        s - space

   - data=d -- Specifies the number of data bits in a character. Valid values for d are in
               the range 5 through 8. The default value is 7. Not all computers support the
               values 5 and 6.
   - stop=s -- Specifies the number of stop bits that define the end of a character: 1, 1.5,
               or 2. If the baud rate is 110, the default value is 2. Otherwise, the default
               value is 1. Not all computers support the value 1.5.
   - to={on|off} -- Specifies whether infinite time-out processing is on or off. The default
                    is off.
   - xon={on|off} -- Specifies whether the xon or xoff protocol for data-flow control is on
                     or off.
   - odsr={on|off} -- Specifies whether output handshaking that uses the Data Set Ready (DSR)
                      circuit is on or off.
   - octs={on|off} -- Specifies whether output handshaking that uses the Clear To Send (CTS)
                      circuit is on or off.
   - dtr={on|off|hs} -- Specifies whether the Data Terminal Ready (DTR) circuit is on or off,
                        or set to handshake.
   - rts={on|off|hs|tg} -- Specifies whether the Request To Send (RTS) circuit is set to on,
                           off, handshake, or toggle.
   - idsr={on|off} -- Specifies whether the DSR circuit sensitivity is on or off.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   To display the status of all devices or of a single device

   Syntax:

   mode [device] [/status]

   Parameters:

   - device -- Specifies the name of the device to display the status.
   - /status -- Requests the status of any redirected parallel printers. The /status
                command-line option can be abbreviated as /sta.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, mode displays all the controllable attributes of the console and
   the available COM devices. Because mode can be used to perform many different tasks, the
   syntax needs to be used to carry out each task is different. Click the task that to
   perform.

   To redirect output from a parallel port to a serial communications port

   Syntax:

   mode lptn[:]=comm[:]

   Parameters:

   - lptn -- Required. Specifies the parallel port. Valid values for n are in the range 1
             through 3.
   - comm [:] -- Required. Specifies the serial port. Valid values for m are in the range
                 1 through 4.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Redirect printing can only be done by a member of the Administrators group.

   Examples:

   To set up te system so that it sends parallel-printer output to a serial printer, the
   mode command must be used twice. The first time, use mode to configure the serial port.
   The second time, use mode to redirect parallel-printer output to the serial port specified
   in the first mode command.

   For example, if the serial printer operates at 4800 baud with even parity and is connected
   to the COM1 port (the first serial connection on the computer), type:

      mode com1 48,e,,,b
      mode lpt1=com1

   If parallel-printer output is redirected from LPT1 to COM1 but then decide to print a file
   by using LPT1, type the following command before printing the file:

      mode lpt1

   This command prevents the redirection the file from LPT1 to COM1.

   To select, refresh, or display the numbers of the code pages for the console

   Syntax:

   mode device codepage select=yyy
   mode device codepage [/status]

   Parameters:

   - device -- Required. Specifies the device to select a code page. CON is the only valid name
               for a device.
   - codepage select= -- Required. Specifies which code page to use with the specified device.
                         codepage can be abbreviated and select as cp and sel, respectively.
   - yyy -- Required. Specifies the number of the code page to select. The following table lists
            each code page supported and its Country/Region or language.

        Value - Country/Region

        437 - United States
        850 - Multilingual (Latin I)
        852 - Slavic (Latin II)
        855 - Cyrillic (Russian)
        857 - Turkish
        860 - Portuguese
        861 - Icelandic
        863 - Canadian-French
        865 - Nordic
        866 - Russian
        869 - Modern Greek

   - codepage -- Required. Displays the numbers of the code pages, if any, that are selected for
                 the specified device.
   - /status -- Displays the numbers of the current code pages selected for the specified device.
                /status can be abbreviated to /sta. Whether or not /status is specified, mode
                codepage displays the numbers of the code pages that are selected for the
                specified device.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   To change the size of the command prompt screen buffer

   Syntax:

   mode con[:] [cols=c] [lines=n]

   Parameters:

   - con[:] -- Required. Indicates that the change is to the command prompt window.
   - cols=c -- Specifies the number of characters (columns) wide in the command prompt screen
               buffer.
   - lines=n -- Specifies the number of lines deep in the command prompt screen buffer.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   To set the keyboard typematic rate

   Syntax:

   mode con[:] [rate=r delay=d]

   Parameters:

   - con[:] -- Required. Refers to the keyboard.
   - rate=r -- Specifies the rate at which a character is repeated on the screen when a key is
               held down.
   - delay=d -- Specifies the amount of time that must elapse, after pressing and hold down a
               key, before the character output starts to repeat.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The typematic rate is the rate at which a character repeats when the key is held down for
   that character. The typematic rate has two components, the rate and the delay. Some
   keyboards do not recognize this command.

   Using rate=r

   Valid values are in the range 1 through 32. These values are equal to approximately 2 to
   30 characters per second, respectively. The default value is 20 for IBM AT-compatible
   keyboards, and 21 for IBM PS/2-compatible keyboards. If the rate is set, the delay must
   also be set.

   Using delay=d

   Valid values for d are 1, 2, 3, and 4 (representing 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1 second,
   respectively). The default value is 2. If the rate is set, the delay must also be set.

 
Modem Settings
This is a short cut to start up the MODDEM Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
'CONTROL MODEM' and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
MORE
Displays output one screen at a time.

   command | more [/c] [/p] [/s] [/tn] [+n]
   more [[/c] [/p] [/s] [/tn] [+n]] < [Drive:] [Path] FileName
   more [/c] [/p] [/s] [/tn] [+n] [files]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:] [Path] FileName -- Specifies the file to display.
   - command -- Specifies a command to display the output.
   - /c -- Clears screen before displaying page.
   - /p -- Expands form-feed characters.
   - /s -- Changes multiple blank lines to one blank line.
   - /tn -- Changes tabs to the number of spaces specified by n.
   - +n -- Displays first file beginning at the line specified by n.
   - files -- Specifies list of files to display. Separate file names with a space.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using more at the Recovery Console:
   ===================================
   The more command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Using more subcommands:
   =======================
   The following commands are accepted at the more prompt (-- More --).

      Key - Action

      SPACEBAR - Display next page
      ENTER - Display next line
      f - Display next file
      q - Quit
      ? - Show available commands
      = - Show line number
      p n - Display next n lines
      s n - Skip next n lines

   Sources of data:
   ================
   When using the redirection character (<), a file name must be specified as the source.
   When using the pipe (|), such commands as dir, sort, and type can be used.

   Examples:

   To view the file named Clients.new on the screen, type either of the following two commands:

      more < clients.new
      type clients.new | more

   The more command displays the first screen of information from Clients.new, and then the
   following prompt appears:

      -- More --

   Press the SPACEBAR to see the next screen of information.

   To clear the screen and remove all extra blank lines before displaying the file Clients.new,
   type either of the following two commands:

      more /c /s < clients.new

   type clients.new | more /c /s

   The more command displays the first screen of information from Clients.new, and then the
   following prompt appears:

      -- More --

   To display the file one line at a time, press ENTER.

   To display the next page, press the SPACEBAR.

   To display the next file listed on the command line, type f.

   To quit more, type q.

   Add commands to the more prompt as shown in this example:

      -- More [Options: psfq=] --

   To display the current line number, type =. The current line number is added to the more
   prompt as shown in this example:

      -- More [Line: 24] --

   To display a specific number of lines, type p. More prompts for the number of lines to
   display as follows:

      -- More -- Lines:

   Type the number of lines to display and press ENTER. More displays the specified number
   of lines.

   To skip a specific number of lines, type s. More prompts for the number of lines to skip
   as follows:

      -- More -- Lines:

   Type the number of lines to skip, and then press ENTER. More skips the specified number of
   lines and displays the next screen of information.

 
MOVE
Moves one or more files from one directory to the specified directory.

   move [{/y|/-y}] [Source] [target]

   Parameters:

   - /y -- Suppresses prompting to confirm to overwrite an existing destination file.
   - /-y -- Causes prompting to confirm to overwrite an existing destination file.
   - Source -- Specifies the path and name of the file or files to move. If moving or
   renaming a directory, Source should be the current directory path and name.
   - target -- Specifies the path and name to move files to. To move or rename a
   directory, the target should be the desired directory path and name.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using the /y command-line option:
   =================================
   The /y command-line option might be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable.
   This can be overridden this with /-y on the command line. The default is to
   prompt on overwrites unless the copy command is being executed from within a
   batch script.

   Moving encrypted files:
   =======================
   Moving encrypted files to a volume that does not support Encrypting File System
   (EFS) results in an error. Decrypt the files first or move the files to a volume
   that does support EFS.

   Examples:

   To move all files with the .xls extension from the \Data directory to the
   \Second_Q\Reports directory, type the following:

      move \data\*.xls \second_q\reports\

 
MSG
Send a message to a user

   MSG {username | sessionname | sessionid | @filename | *}
       [/SERVER:servername] [/TIME:seconds] [/V] [/W] [message]

   Parameters:

   - username            Identifies the specified username.
   - sessionname         The name of the session.
   - sessionid           The ID of the session.
   - @filename           Identifies a file containing a list of usernames,
                         sessionnames, and sessionids to send the message to.
   - *                   Send message to all sessions on specified server.
   - /SERVER:servername  server to contact (default is current).
   - /TIME:seconds       Time delay to wait for receiver to acknowledge msg.
   - /V                  Display information about actions being performed.
   - /W                  Wait for response from user, useful with /V.
   - message             Message to send. If none specified, prompts for it
                         or reads from stdin.

   Examples:
   - To send the message entitled Let's meet at 1PM today to all sessions for
     user MIKES, type:
        msg MIKES Let's meet at 1PM today

   - To send the same message to session MODEM02, type:
        msg modem02 Let's meet at 1PM today

   - To send the message to session 12, type:
        msg 12 Let's meet at 1PM today

   - To send the message to all sessions contained in the file USERLIST, type:
        msg @userlist Let's meet at 1PM today

   - To send the message to all users who are logged on, type:
        msg * Let's meet at 1PM today

   - To send the message to all users, with an acknowledgment time-out
     (for example, 10 seconds), type:
        msg * /TIME:10 Let's meet at 1PM today

 
MSCONFIG
System configuration

This includes such things as programs run at STARTUP and Services which
can be unchecked to remove them from this active list.

   MSCONFIG

 
MSTSC
Connect to a remote PC

   mstsc [/v:server[:port]] [/w:pixels] [h:pixels] [/prompt] [/admin] [/?]

   Parameters:

   /v:server:port -- specify the server, and optionally the port, which to connect to

   /admin -- connect to the session as an administrator

   /prompt -- go through the credentials logon before allowing the connection

   /f -- make the connection window be in full screen mode

   /W:pixels -- specify how many pixels wide to make the connection window

   /h:pixels -- specify how many pixels high to make the connection window

   /span -- make the connection window span across multiple monitors

   /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   MSTSC allows connection to a remote PC/server as if sitting in front of that PC/server

   NOTE: there are several other options for this command such as /public and /multimon
   and /shadow and /control and/noConsentPrompt and "connection file" but would probably
   rarely  be used thus are not documented here. To see more, type in:  mstsc /?

   Examples:

   To start up the GUI to connect to a remote PC, type:

      mstsc

   To connect to the PC by name and require a logon, type:

      mstsc /v:\\ABC00123456W7 /prompt


 
NBTSTAT
Displays NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocol statistics, NetBIOS name tables for both the local computer and remote computers, and the NetBIOS name cache.

   nbtstat [-a RemoteName] [-A IPAddress] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [Interval]

   Parameters:

   -a RemoteName -- Displays the NetBIOS name table of a remote computer, where RemoteName
                    is the NetBIOS computer name of the remote computer. The NetBIOS name
                    table is the list of NetBIOS names that corresponds to NetBIOS applications
                    running on that computer.
   -A IPAddress -- Displays the NetBIOS name table of a remote computer, specified by the IP
                   address (in dotted decimal notation) of the remote computer.
   -c -- Displays the contents of the NetBIOS name cache, the table of NetBIOS names and their
         resolved IP addresses.
   -n -- Displays the NetBIOS name table of the local computer. The status of Registered
         indicates that the name is registered either by broadcast or with a WINS server.
   -r -- Displays NetBIOS name resolution statistics. On a Windows XP computer that is
         configured to use WINS, this parameter returns the number of names that have been
         resolved and registered using broadcast and WINS.
   -R -- Purges the contents of the NetBIOS name cache and then reloads the #PRE-tagged
         entries from the Lmhosts file.
   -RR -- Releases and then refreshes NetBIOS names for the local computer that is registered
          with WINS servers.
   -s -- Displays NetBIOS client and server sessions, attempting to convert the destination IP
         address to a name.
   -S -- Displays NetBIOS client and server sessions, listing the remote computers by destination
         IP address only.
   Interval -- Redisplays selected statistics, pausing the number of seconds specified in
               Interval between each display. Press CTRL+C to stop redisplaying statistics. If
               this parameter is omitted, nbtstat prints the current configuration information
               only once.
   /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Nbtstat allows a refresh of the NetBIOS name cache and the names registered with Windows
   Internet Name Service (WINS).

   Used without parameters, nbtstat displays help.

   Nbtstat command-line parameters are case-sensitive.

   The following table describes the column headings that are generated by nbtstat.

      Heading - Description

      Input - The number of bytes received.
      Output - The number of bytes sent.
      In/Out - Whether the connection is from the computer (outbound) or from another computer
      to the local computer (inbound).
      Life - The remaining time that a name table cache entry will live before it is purged.
      Local Name - The local NetBIOS name associated with the connection.
      Remote Host - The name or IP address associated with the remote computer.
      <03> - The last byte of a NetBIOS name converted to hexadecimal. Each NetBIOS name is 16
      characters long. This last byte often has special significance because the same name
      might be present several times on a computer, differing only in the last byte. For
      example, <20> is a space in ASCII text.
      Type - The type of name. A name can either be a unique name or a group name.
      Status - Whether the NetBIOS service on the remote computer is running (Registered) or a
      duplicate computer name has registered the same service (Conflict).
      State - The state of NetBIOS connections.

   The following table describes the possible NetBIOS connection states.

      State - Description

      Connected - A session has been established.
      Associated - A connection endpoint has been created and associated with an IP address.
      Listening - This endpoint is available for an inbound connection.
      Idle - This endpoint has been opened but cannot receive connections.
      Connecting - A session is in the connecting phase and the name-to-IP address mapping
                   of the destination is being resolved.
      Accepting - An inbound session is currently being accepted and will be connected shortly.
      Reconnecting - A session is trying to reconnect (it failed to connect on the first attempt).
      Outbound - A session is in the connecting phase and the TCP connection is currently being
                 created.
      Inbound - An inbound session is in the connecting phase.
      Disconnecting - A session is in the process of disconnecting.
      Disconnected - The local computer has issued a disconnect and it is waiting for
                     confirmation from the remote system.

   This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as a
   component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections

   Examples:

   To display the NetBIOS name table of the remote computer with the NetBIOS computer name of
   CORP07, type:

      nbtstat -a CORP07

   To display the NetBIOS name table of the remote computer assigned the IP address of
   10.0.0.99, type:

      nbtstat -A 10.0.0.99

   To display the NetBIOS name table of the local computer, type:

      nbtstat -n

   To display the contents of the local computer NetBIOS name cache, type:

      nbtstat -c

   To purge the NetBIOS name cache and reload the #PRE-tagged entries in the local Lmhosts
   file, type:

      nbtstat -R

   To release the NetBIOS names registered with the WINS server and re-register them, type:

      nbtstat -RR

   To display NetBIOS session statistics by IP address every five seconds, type:

      nbtstat -S 5

 
NET
Network Services

   NET [service]

   Parameters:

   - [service] -- Name of the network service
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.
   - [service] /? -- Displays help at the command prompt for a specified service.

   Remarks:

   The services available are:

   - Net accounts -- Updates the user accounts database and modifies password and logon requirements for all accounts.
   - Net computer -- Adds or deletes computers from a domain database.
   - Net config -- Displays the configurable services that are running, or displays and changes settings for a Server service or a Workstation service. Used without parameters, net config displays a list of configurable services.
   - Net continue -- Continues a service that has been suspended by net pause.
   - Net file -- Displays/closes the names of all open shared files on a server and the number of file locks, if any, on each file.
   - Net group -- Adds, displays, or modifies global groups in domains.
   - Net help x -- Provides a list of network commands and topics for which you can get help, or provides information about a specific command.
   - Net helpmsg -- Explains why an error occurred and provides problem-solving information.
   - Net localgroup -- Adds, displays, or modifies local groups. Used without parameters, net localgroup displays the name of the server and the names of local groups on the computer.
   - Net name -- Adds or deletes a messaging name (that is, an alias), or displays the list of names for which the computer can accept messages.
   - Net pause -- Pauses services that are currently running.
   - Net print -- Displays information about a specified print queue, displays information about all print queues hosted by a specified print server, displays information about a specified print job, or controls a specified print job.
   - Net send -- Sends messages to other users, computers, or messaging names on the network.
   - Net session -- Manages server computer connections. Used without parameters, net session displays information about all sessions with the local computer.
   - Net share -- Manages shared resources. Used without parameters, net share displays information about all of the resources that are shared on the local computer.
   - Net start -- Starts a service. Used without parameters, net start displays a list of services that are currently operating.
   - Net statistics -- Displays the statistics log for the local Workstation or Server service, or the running services for which statistics are available.
   - Net stop -- Stops a running service.
   - Net time -- Synchronizes the computer's clock with that of another computer or domain.
   - Net use -- Connects a computer to or disconnects a computer from a shared resource, or displays information about computer connections. The command also controls persistent net connections.
   - Net user -- Adds or modifies user accounts or displays user account information.
   - Net view  -- Displays a list of domains, computers, or resources that are being shared by the specified computer.


 
NETSTAT
Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics,
the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols), and IPv6
statistics (for the IPv6, ICMPv6, TCP over IPv6, and UDP over IPv6 protocols).

   netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p Protocol] [-r] [-s] [Interval]

   Parameters:

   - -a -- Displays all active TCP connections and the TCP and UDP ports on which the computer
           is listening.
   - -e -- Displays Ethernet statistics, such as the number of bytes and packets sent and
           received. This parameter can be combined with -s.
   - -n -- Displays active TCP connections, however, addresses and port numbers are expressed
           numerically and no attempt is made to determine names.
   - -o -- Displays active TCP connections and includes the process ID (PID) for each connection.
           The application based on the PID can be found on the Processes tab in Windows Task
           Manager. This parameter can be combined with -a, -n, and -p.
   - -p Protocol -- Shows connections for the protocol specified by Protocol. In this case, the
                    Protocol can be tcp, udp, tcpv6, or udpv6. If this parameter is used with
                    -s to display statistics by protocol, Protocol can be tcp, udp, icmp, ip,
                    tcpv6, udpv6, icmpv6, or ipv6.
   - -s -- Displays statistics by protocol. By default, statistics are shown for the TCP, UDP,
           ICMP, and IP protocols. If the IPv6 protocol for Windows XP is installed, statistics
           are shown for the TCP over IPv6, UDP over IPv6, ICMPv6, and IPv6 protocols. The -p
           parameter can be used to specify a set of protocols.
   - -r -- Displays the contents of the IP routing table. This is equivalent to the route print
           command.
   - Interval -- Redisplays the selected information every Interval seconds. Press CTRL+C to
                 stop the redisplay. If this parameter is omitted, netstat prints the selected
                 information only once.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, netstat displays active TCP connections.

   Parameters used with this command must be prefixed with a hyphen (-) rather than a slash (/).

   Netstat provides statistics for the following:

      Proto - The name of the protocol (TCP or UDP).
      Local Address - The IP address of the local computer and the port number being used. The
                      name of the local computer that corresponds to the IP address and the
                      name of the port is shown unless the -n parameter is specified. If the
                      port is not yet established, the port number is shown as an asterisk (*).
      Foreign Address - The IP address and port number of the remote computer to which the
                        socket is connected. The names that corresponds to the IP address and
                        the port are shown unless the -n parameter is specified. If the port
                        is not yet established, the port number is shown as an asterisk (*).
      (state) - Indicates the state of a TCP connection. The possible states are as follows:

         -- CLOSE_WAIT
         -- CLOSED
         -- ESTABLISHED
         -- FIN_WAIT_1
         -- FIN_WAIT_2
         -- LAST_ACK
         -- LISTEN
         -- SYN_RECEIVED
         -- SYN_SEND
         -- TIMED_WAIT

   For more information about the states of a TCP connection, see RFC 793.

   This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as a
   component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections

   Examples:

   To display both the Ethernet statistics and the statistics for all protocols, type the
   following command:

      netstat -e -s

   To display the statistics for only the TCP and UDP protocols, type the following command:

      netstat -s -p tcp udp

   To display active TCP connections and the process IDs every 5 seconds, type the following
   command:

      netstat -o 5

   To display active TCP connections and the process IDs using numerical form, type the
   following command:

      netstat -n -o

 
Notepad Text Editor
This is a short cut to start up the Notepad text editor. This simple editor is
useful for viewing and modifying files whose contents is made up only of the
ASCII characters found on a typical keyboard. No formatting (e.g. bold, font
size, tables, etc.) can be done within Notepad.

When NOTEPAD is started, an optional file name can be given.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
NOTEPAD and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Removable Storage Manager
This is a short cut to start up the Removable Storage Manager dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
NTMSMGMT.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
ODBCAD32
This is a short cut to start up the ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog
portion of the Control Panel. ODBC is where databases are configured so that
they are accessible in applications.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
ODBCAD32 and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
MS-Paint Graphics Editor
This is a short cut to start up the MS-Paint graphics editor. This simple editor is
useful for viewing and modifying files whose contents are basically a graphic image.

When MSPAINT is started, an optional file name can be given.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
MSPAINT and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
PATH
Sets the command path in the PATH environment variable, which is the set of directories used to
search for executable files.

   path [[%path%] [Drive:]Path [;...]]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:]Path -- Specifies the drive and directory to set in the command path.
   - ; -- Separates directories in the command path.
   - %path% -- Specifies Windows XP to append the command path to the existing set of
               directories listed in the PATH environment variable.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, path displays the current command path.

   Using ;:
   ========
   When used as the only parameter, ; deletes the existing command path value found in the PATH
   variable.

   Using %path%:
   =============
   When %path% is included in the syntax, Cmd.exe replaces it with the command path value found
   in the PATH variable, eliminating the need to manually enter these values at the command
   line. For more information about substituting environment variable values, see Command shell
   overview in Related Topics.

      Current directory

   The operating system always searches in the current directory first, before it searches the
   directories in the command path.

   Files with the same name, different extensions:
   ===============================================
   Some files might be in the same directory that share the same file name but have different
   extensions. For example, there might have a file named Accnt.com that starts an accounting
   program and another file named Accnt.bat that connects the system to the accounting system
   network.

   The operating system searches for a file by using default file name extensions in the
   following order of precedence: .exe, .com, .bat, and .cmd. To run Accnt.bat when Accnt.com
   exists in the same directory, the .bat extension must be given on the command line.

   Two or more identical file names in the path"
   =============================================
   If there are two or more files in the command path that have the same file name and extension,
   Windows XP searches for the specified file name first in the current directory, and then it
   searches the directories in the command path in the order in which they are listed in PATH.

   Searching the MS-DOS subsystem:
   ===============================
   If the path command is placed in the Autoexec.nt file, it automatically appends the specified
   MS-DOS subsystem search path to the Windows XP search path at every log on to the computer.
   Cmd.exe does not use the Autoexec.nt file. When started from a shortcut, Cmd.exe inherits the
   environment variables set in My Computer/Properties/Advanced/Environment.

   Examples:

   The following command specifies that Windows XP is to search three directories to find external
   commands. The three paths for these directories are C:\User\Taxes, B:\User\Invest, and B:\Bin:

      path c:\user\taxes;b:\user\invest;b:\bin

 
PAUSE
Suspends processing of a batch program and displays a message prompting the user
to press any key to continue.

  pause

   Parameters:

  /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  When run the prompt command, the following message appears:

     Press any key to continue . . .

  If CTRL+C is pressed to stop a batch program, the following message appears:

     Terminate batch job (Y/N)?

  If press Y (for yes) in response to this message, the batch program ends and control
  returns to the operating system. Therefore, the pause command can be inserted before
  a section of the batch file that may not want to be processed. While pause suspends
  processing of the batch program, pressing CTRL+C and then Y to stop the batch program.

    Examples:

  To create a batch program that prompts the user to change disks in one of the drives,
  type:

     @echo off
     :begin
     copy a:*.*
     echo Please put a new disk into drive A
     pause
     goto begin

  In this example, all the files on the disk in drive A are copied to the current directory.
  After the displayed comment prompts to place another disk in drive A, the pause command
  suspends processing so that disks can be changed and then press any key to resume processing.
  This particular batch program runs in an endless loop. The goto BEGIN command sends the
  command interpreter to the begin label of the batch file. To stop this batch program,
  press CTRL+C and then Y.

 
PERFMON
   Open a Windows XP Performance console configured with settings files from Windows NT 4.0
   version of Performance Monitor.

   perfmon.exe [file_name] [/HTMLFILE:converted_file settings_file]

   Parameters:

   - .exe -- Specifies the name of the file extension.
   - file_name -- Specifies the name of the settings file.
   - /HTMLFILE:converted_file settings_file -- Specifies the name of the converted files, and the
                                               name of the original Windows NT 4.0 settings file.

   Remarks:

   This procedure works for the following types of Windows NT 4.0 version of Performance Monitor
   settings files: chart (.pmc), report (.pmr), alert (.pma), and log (.pml).

   To display the Windows NT 4.0 settings file in System Monitor, the system temporarily converts
   the file for use with Windows XP System Monitor, then discards the converted version after the
   console starts. To save the settings file for permanent use with System Monitor, type:

   Perfmon [file_name] [/HTMLFILE:converted_file settings_file]

   Where /HTMLFILE:converted_file is the name given to the converted file and settings_file is the
   name of the original Windows NT 4.0 settings file.

   For more information about incorporating Perfmon into the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
   scripts, see Scripting Logs and Monitoring at the Microsoft Windows Resource Kits Web site.

   Examples:

   To list the settings file, type:

   Perfmon myfile_overview

   To list converted and original file names, type:

      Perfmon myfile_overview /Commands:newfile_review oldfile_sample.pml

 
PING
Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control
Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages.

   ping [-t] [-a] [-n Count] [-l Size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r Count] [-s Count]
        [{-j HostList | -k HostList}] [-w Timeout] [TargetName]

   Parameters:

   - -t -- Specifies that ping continue sending Echo Request messages to the destination
           until interrupted. To interrupt and display statistics, press CTRL-BREAK. To
           interrupt and quit ping, press CTRL-C.
   - -a -- Specifies that reverse name resolution is performed on the destination IP
           address. If this is successful, ping displays the corresponding host name.
   - -n Count -- Specifies the number of Echo Request messages sent. The default is 4.
   - -l Size -- Specifies the length, in bytes, of the Data field in the Echo Request
                messages sent. The default is 32. The maximum size is 65,527.
   - -f -- Specifies that Echo Request messages are sent with the Don't Fragment flag in
           the IP header set to 1. The Echo Request message cannot be fragmented by
           routers in the path to the destination. This parameter is useful for
           troubleshooting path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) problems.
   - -i TTL -- Specifies the value of the TTL field in the IP header for Echo Request
               messages sent. The default is the default TTL value for the host. For
               Windows XP hosts, this is typically 128. The maximum TTL is 255.
   - -v TOS -- Specifies the value of the Type of Service (TOS) field in the IP header for
               Echo Request messages sent. The default is 0. TOS is specified as a decimal
               value from 0 to 255.
   - -r Count -- Specifies that the Record Route option in the IP header is used to record the
                 path taken by the Echo Request message and corresponding Echo Reply message.
                 Each hop in the path uses an entry in the Record Route option. If possible,
                 specify a Count that is equal to or greater than the number of hops between
                 the source and destination. The Count must be a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 9.
   - -s Count -- Specifies that the Internet Timestamp option in the IP header is used to record
                 the time of arrival for the Echo Request message and corresponding Echo Reply
                 message for each hop. The Count must be a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 4.
   - -j HostList -- Specifies that the Echo Request messages use the Loose Source Route option in
                    the IP header with the set of intermediate destinations specified in HostList.
                    With loose source routing, successive intermediate destinations can be
                    separated by one or multiple routers. The maximum number of addresses or names
                    in the host list is 9. The host list is a series of IP addresses (in dotted
                    decimal notation) separated by spaces.
   - -k HostList -- Specifies that the Echo Request messages use the Strict Source Route option in
                    the IP header with the set of intermediate destinations specified in HostList.
                    With strict source routing, the next intermediate destination must be directly
                    reachable (it must be a neighbor on an interface of the router). The maximum
                    number of addresses or names in the host list is 9. The host list is a series
                    of IP addresses (in dotted decimal notation) separated by spaces.
   - -w Timeout -- Specifies the amount of time, in milliseconds, to wait for the Echo Reply
                   message that corresponds to a given Echo Request message to be received. If the
                   Echo Reply message is not received within the time-out, the "Request timed out"
                   error message is displayed. The default time-out is 4000 (4 seconds).
   - TargetName -- Specifies the destination, which is identified either by IP address or host
                   name.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The receipt of corresponding Echo Reply messages are displayed, along with round-trip times.
   Ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name
   resolution. Used without parameters, ping displays help.

   ping can be used to test both the computer name and the IP address of the computer. If
   pinging the IP address is successful, but pinging the computer name is not, there might be a
   name resolution problem. In this case, ensure that the specified computer name can be resolved
   through the local Hosts file, by using Domain Name System (DNS) queries, or through NetBIOS
   name resolution techniques.

   This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as
   a component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections

   Examples:

   The following example shows ping command output:

      C:\>ping example.microsoft.com

         Pinging example.microsoft.com [192.168.239.132] with 32 bytes of data:
         Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=101ms TTL=124
         Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=124
         Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124
         Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124

   To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and resolve 10.0.99.221 to its host name, type:

      ping -a 10.0.99.221

   To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 with 10 Echo Request messages, each of which has a Data
   field of 1000 bytes, type:

      ping -n 10 -l 1000 10.0.99.221

   To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and record the route for 4 hops, type:

      ping -r 4 10.0.99.221

   To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and specify the loose source route of
   10.12.0.1-10.29.3.1-10.1.44.1, type:

      ping -j 10.12.0.1 10.29.3.1 10.1.44.1 10.0.99.221

 
POPD
Changes the current directory to the directory stored by the pushd command.

   popd

   Parameters:

   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Every time the pushd command is used, a single directory is stored for later use. However,
   storing multiple directories is done by using the pushd command multiple times.

   The directories are stored sequentially in a virtual stack. If the pushd command is used
   once, the directory in which the command was specified is placed at the bottom of the stack.
   If the command is used again, the second directory is placed on top of the first one. The
   process repeats every time the pushd command is used.

   The popd command is used to change the current directory to the directory most recently
   stored by the pushd command. If the popd command is used, the directory on the top of the
   stack is removed from the stack as the current directory is changed to that directory. If
   the popd command is used again, the next directory on the stack is removed.

   When command extensions are enabled, the popd command removes any drive-letter assignations
   created by pushd.

   Examples:

   pushd and popd can be used in a batch program to change the current directory from the one
   in which the batch program was run and then change it back. The following sample batch
   program shows how to do this:

      @echo off
      rem This batch file deletes all .txt files in a specified directory
      pushd %1
      del *.txt
      popd
      cls
      echo All text files

 
Power Settings
This is a short cut to start up the POWER Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
POWERCFG.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
PRINT
Sends a text file to a printer.

   print [/d:Printer] [Drive:][Path] FileName [ ...]

   Parameters:

   - /d:Printer -- Specifies the printer on which  to print the file. A local printer can be
                   specified by specifying the port on the computer to which the printer is
                   connected. Valid values for parallel ports are LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3.
                   Valid values for serial ports are COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4. A network
                   printer can be specified by its queue name (\\ServerName\ShareName).
                   If a printer is not specified, the print job is sent to LPT1.
   - Drive: -- Specifies the logical or physical drive on which the file to print is
               located. This parameter is not required if the file is located on the
               current drive.
   - Path -- Specifies where, on the drive, the file to print is located. This parameter
             is not required if the file to print is located in the current directory.
   - FileName [...] -- Required. Specifies, by name, the file to print. Multiple files
                      can be include in one command.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A file can print in the background if it is sent to a printer connected to a serial or
   parallel port on the local computer.

   Many programs have their own print commands. The print command should be used for a
   program to print files created with that program.

   Many configuration tasks can be performed from the command line by using the mode command.
   For more information about configuring a printer connected to a parallel port, configuring
   a printer connected to a serial port, displaying the status of a printer, or preparing a
   printer for code page switching, see mode in Related Topics.

   Examples:

   To send the file Report.txt in the current directory to a printer connected to LPT2 on
   the local computer, type:

      print /d:LPT2 report.txt

   To send the file Report.txt in the c:\Accounting directory to the Printer1 print queue
   on the \\CopyRoom server, type:

      print /d:\\copyroom\printer1 c:\accounting\report.txt

 
Printers/Faxes Settings
This is a short cut to start up the PRINTERS/FAXES Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
'CONTROL PRINTERS' and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
PROMPT
Changes the Cmd.exe prompt.

   prompt [text]

   Parameters:

   - text : Specifies any text and information to include in the system prompt.
   - /? : Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, prompt resets the command prompt to the default setting, the
   current drive letter followed by the current directory and a greater-than symbol (>).

   The command prompt can be customized to display any text desired, including such
   information as the name of the current directory, the time and date, and the Windows
   XP version number.

   The following table lists the character combinations that can be included instead of,
   or in addition to, one or more character strings in the text command-line option. The
   list includes a brief description of the text or information that each character
   combination adds to the command prompt.

      Character - Description

      $q - = (equal sign)
      $$ - $ (dollar sign)
      $t - Current time
      $d - Current date
      $p - Current drive and path
      $v - Windows XP version number
      $n - Current drive
      $g - > (greater-than sign)
      $l - < (less-than sign)
      $b - | (pipe)
      $_ - ENTER-LINEFEED
      $e - ANSI escape code (code 27)
      $h - Backspace (to delete a character that has been written to the prompt command line)
      $a - & (ampersand)
      $c - ( (left parenthesis)
      $f - ) (right parenthesis)
      $s - space

   When command extensions are enabled (i.e., the default) the prompt command supports the
   formatting characters listed in the following table.

      Character - Description

      $+ - Zero or more plus sign (+) characters depending upon the depth of the pushd
           directory stack, one character for each level pushed.
      $m - The remote name associated with the current drive letter or the empty string
           if current drive is not a network drive.

   If the $p character is included in the text parameter, the disk is read, after entering
   each command, to determine the current drive and path. This can take extra time,
   especially for floppy disk drives.

   Examples:

   The following example sets the command prompt to display the current drive and path
   followed by the greater-than symbol (>):

      prompt $p$g

   The following command displays a two-line prompt in which the current time appears on
   the first line and the current date appears on the second line:

      prompt time is: $t$_date is: $d

 
PUSHD
Stores the name of the current directory for use by the popd command before changing the
current directory to the specified directory.

   pushd [Path]

   Parameters:

   Path -- Specifies the directory to which the current directory should be changed. This
           command supports relative paths.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Every time the pushd command is used, a single directory is stored for later use. However,
   storing multiple directories is done by using the pushd command multiple times.

   The directories are stored sequentially in a virtual stack. If the pushd command is used
   once, the directory in which from which the command was specified is placed at the bottom
   of the stack. If the command is used again, the second directory is placed on top of the
   first one. The process repeats every time the pushd command is used.

   The popd command can be used to change the current directory to the directory most recently
   stored by the pushd command. If the popd command is used, the directory on the top of the
   stack is removed from the stack as the current directory is changed to that directory. If
   the popd command is used again, the next directory on the stack is removed.

   If command extensions are enabled, the pushd command accepts either a network path or a local
   drive letter and path.

   If a network path is specified, the pushd command temporarily assigns the first unused drive
   letter (starting with Z:) to the specified network resource. The command then changes the
   current drive and directory to the specified directory on the newly assigned drive. If the
   popd command is used with command extensions enabled, the popd command removes the
   drive-letter assignation created by pushd.

   Examples:

   The pushd command and the popd command can be used in a batch program to change the current
   directory from the one in which the batch program was run and then change it back. The
   following sample batch program shows how to do this:

      @echo off
      rem This batch file deletes all .txt files in a specified directory
      pushd %1
      del *.txt
      popd
      cls
      echo All text files deleted in the %1 directory

 
RASDIAL
Automate starting a network connection using a specific entry

Automate the connection process for any Microsoft client by using a simple batch file and the
rasdial command. The rasdial command starts a network connection by using a specified entry.

  rasdial connectionname [username [password | *]] [/domain:domain] [/phone:phonenumber]
          [/callback:callbacknumber] [/phonebook:phonebookpath] [/prefixsuffix]

  The rasdial command disconnects a network connection by using the following syntax:

    rasdial [connectionname] /disconnect

   Parameters:

  - None -- Used without options, rasdial displays the status of current connections.
  - connectionname -- Specifies an entry in the current .pbk file, located in the
       \systemroot\System32\Ras folder. If the connection name contains spaces or special
       characters, enclose the connection name in quotation marks (").
  - The Rasphone.pbk file is used unless the Personal Phonebook option is selected. If
       the Personal Phonebook option is selected, the file username.pbk is used. The name
       is shown on the Rasphone title bar when Personal Phonebook/p is selected. Numbers
       are appended if name conflicts occur.
  - username [password | *] -- Specifies a user name and password with which to connect.
       If an asterisk is used, the user is prompted for the password, but does not display
       the characters typed.
  - /domain:domain -- Specifies the domain the user account is located in.
  - If not present, the last value of the Domain field in the Connect To dialog box is used.
  - /callback:callbacknumber -- Substitutes the specified callback number for the entry's
       callback number in Rasphone.pbk.
  - /disconnect -- Disconnects the specified entry.
  - /phonebook:phonebookpath -- Specifies the path to the phonebook file. The default is
       \systemroot\System32\Ras\username.pbk. Specifying a full path to the file is an option.
  - /prefixsuffix -- Applies the current TAPI location dialing settings to the phone number.
       These settings are configured in Telephony, which is located in Control Panel. This
       option is off by default.

    Examples:

  To connect to the OFFICE entry in Rasphone.pbk, type:
     rasdial office

  To connect to the OFFICE 2 entry in Rasphone.pbk and specify a callback number, type:
     rasdial "office 2" /callback:555-0100

  To disconnect from the EAST OFFICE entry, type:
     rasdial "EAST OFFICE" /d

 
RD
Removes (i.e. deletes) a directory.

   rd [Drive:]Path [/s] [/q]

   rmdir [Drive:]Path [/s] [/q]

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:]Path -- Specifies the location and name of the directory to delete.
   - /s -- Removes the specified directory and all subdirectories including any files.
           Use /s to remove a tree.
   - /q -- Runs rd in quiet mode. Deletes directories without confirmation.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using rd at the Recovery Console:
   ====================================
   The rd command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

   Cannot delete directory with hidden or system files:
   ====================================================
   rd will not delete a directory that contains files, including hidden or system files.
   Attempt to do so will display the following message:

      The directory not empty:

   Use the dir command to list hidden and system files, and the attrib command to remove
   hidden and system attributes from files. For more information, see Related Topics.

   Using the backslash character with the path parameter:
   ======================================================
   If a backslash (\) is inserted before the first directory name in path, the directory is
   treated as a subdirectory of the root directory, regardless of the current directory. If
   a backslash is not inserted before the first directory name in path, the directory is
   treated as a subdirectory of the current directory.

   Deleting the current directory:
   ===============================
   rd cannot delete the current directory. That directory must be deleted after changing to a
   different directory (but not to a subdirectory of the current directory) and then use rd
   with a path. If attempting to delete the current directory, the following message appears:

      The process cannot access the file because it is being used by another process.

   Examples:

   To delete a directory named \User\Smith, first ensure that the directory is empty. To do
   this, type:

      dir \user\smith /a

   Only the "." and ".." symbols should display.

   Then, from any directory except \User\Smith, type:

      rd \user\smith

   To delete the directory \User and all of the subdirectories and files, type:

      rd /s \user

 
RECOVER
Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.

   recover [Drive:][Path] FileName

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the file to recover.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The recover command reads a file sector by sector and recovers data from the good sectors.
   Data in bad sectors is lost.

   Limitation on [drive:][path]filename:
   =====================================
   Wildcards (* and ?) cannot be used with the recover command. A file must be specified.

   Reentering lost data:
   =====================
   Because all data in bad sectors is lost when recovering a file, files should be recovered
   one at a time. Use this method to edit each file and reenter missing information after
   recovering the file.

   Recovering bad sectors:
   =======================
   Bad sectors reported by chkdsk were marked as "bad" when the disk was first prepared for
   operation. They pose no danger, and recover does not affect them.

   Examples:

   To recover the file Story.txt in the \Fiction directory in drive D:, type:

      recover d:\fiction\story.txt

 
REDIRECTION

   Redirection operators can be used to redirect command input and output streams from
   the default locations to different locations. The input or output stream location
   is referred to as a handle

   The following lists operators that can be used to redirect command input and output streams.

   Redirection operator - Description
     >  -  Writes the command output to a file or a device, such as a printer, instead of the
           Command Prompt window.
     <  -  Reads the command input from a file, instead of reading input from the keyboard.
     >> -  Appends the command output to the end of a file without deleting the information that
           is already in the file.
     >& -  Writes the output from one handle to the input of another handle.
     <& -  Reads the input from one handle and writes it to the output of another handle.
     |  -  Reads the output from one command and writes it to the input of another command. Also
           known as a pipe.

   By default, the command input (i.e. the STDIN handle) can be sent from the keyboard to
   Cmd.exe, and then Cmd.exe sends the command output (i.e. the STDOUT handle) to the Command
   Prompt window.

   The following table lists the available handles.
   Handle - Numeric equivalent of handle - Description

     STDIN  - 0 - Keyboard input
     STDOUT - 1 - Output to the Command Prompt window
     STDERR - 2 - Error output to the Command Prompt window
     UNDEFINED - 3-9 - These handles are defined individually by the application and are
                       specific to each tool.

   The numbers zero through nine (i.e. 0-9) represent the first 10 handles. Cmd.exe can be
   used to run a program and redirect any of the first 10 handles for the program. To specify
   which handle to use, type the number of the handle before the redirection operator. If a
   handle is not defined, the default < redirection input operator is zero (0) and the default >
   redirection output operator is one (1). After typing the < or > operator, specify where to
   read or write the data. Either a file name or another existing handle can be specified.

   To specify redirection to existing handles, use the ampersand (&) character followed by the
   handle number to redirect (i.e. &handle#). For example, the following command redirects
   handle 2 (i.e. STDERR) into handle 1 (i.e. STDOUT):

       1<&2

   Duplicating handles
   ===================
   The & redirection operator duplicates output or input from one specified handle to another
   specified handle. For example, to send dir output to File.txt and send the error output to
   File.txt, type:

       dir>c:\file.txt 2>&1

   When duplicating a handle, duplicate all characteristics of the original occurrence of the
   handle. For example, if a handle has write-only access, all duplicates of that handle have
   write-only access. A handle cannot duplicate a handle with read-only access into a handle
   with write-only access.

   Redirecting command input (<)
   =============================
   To redirect command input from the keyboard to a file or device, use the < operator. For
   example, to get the command input for the sort command from File.txt, type:

       sort)
   ==============================
   Almost all commands send output to the Command Prompt window. Even commands that send
   output to a drive or printer display messages and prompts in the Command Prompt window.

   To redirect command output from the Command Prompt window to a file or device, use the >
   operator. This operator can be used with most commands. For example, to redirect dir
   output to Dirlist.txt, type:

       dir>dirlist.txt

   If Dirlist.txt does not exist, Cmd.exe creates it. If Dirlist.txt exists, Cmd.exe replaces
   the information in the file with the output from the dir command.

   To run the netsh routing dump command and then send the command output to Route.cfg, type:

       netsh routing dump>c:\route.cfg

   The > operator opens the specified file with write-only access. As a result, the file cannot
   be read with this operator. For example, if start a program with redirection >&0, all
   attempts to write handle 1 fail because handle 0 is initially opened with read-only access.

   Note:  One is the default handle for the > redirection output operator.

   Using the <& operator to redirect input and duplicate
   =====================================================
   To use the redirection input operator <&, the file specified must already exist. If the input
   file exists, Cmd.exe opens it as read-only and sends the characters contained in the file as
   input to the command as if they were input from the keyboard. If a handle is specified,
   Cmd.exe duplicates the handle specified onto the existing handle in the system.

   For example, to open File.txt as input read to handle 0 (i.e. STDIN), type:

       search.txt 2<&1

   To duplicate a user-defined handle 3 as input read to handle 0 (i.e. STDIN), type:

       <&3

   Using the >& operator to redirect output and duplicate
   ======================================================
   If output is redirected to a file and an existing file name is specified, Cmd.exe opens the
   file as write-only and overwrites the file's contents. If a handle is specified, Cmd.exe
   duplicates the file onto the existing handle.

   To duplicate a user-defined handle 3 into handle 1, type:

       >&3

   To redirect all of the output, including handle 2 (i.e. STDERR), from the ipconfig command
   to handle 1 (i.e. STDOUT), and then redirect the ouput to Output.log, type:

       ipconfig.exe>>output.log 2>&1

   Using the >> redirection operator to append output
   ==================================================
   To add the output from a command to the end of a file without losing any of the information
   already in the file, use two consecutive greater than signs (i.e. >>). For example, the
   following command appends the directory list produced by the dir command to the Dirlist.txt
   file:

       dir>>dirlist.txt

   To append the output of the netstat command to the end of Tcpinfo.txt, type:

       netstat>>tcpinfo.txt

   Using the pipe operator (|)
   ===========================
   The pipe operator (|) takes the output (by default, STDOUT) of one command and directs it
   into the input (by default, STDIN) of another command. For example, the following command
   sorts a directory:

       dir | sort

   In this example, both commands start simultaneously, but then the sort command pauses until
   it receives the dir command's output. The sort command uses the dir command's output as its
   input, and then sends its output to handle 1 (i.e. STDOUT).

   Combining commands with redirection operators
   =============================================
   Custom commands can be created by combining filter commands with other commands and file
   names. For example, use the following command to store the names of files that contain the
   string "LOG":

       dir /b | find "LOG" > loglist.txt

   The dir command's output is sent through the find filter command. File names that contain
   the string "LOG" are stored as a list of file names (for example, NetshConfig.log,
   Logdat.svd, and Mylog.bat) in the Loglist.txt file.

   To use more than one filter in the same command, separate the filters with a pipe (|).
   For example, the following command searches every directory on drive C:, finds the file
   names that include the string "Log", and then displays them in one Command Prompt window
   at a time:

       dir c:\ /s /b | find "LOG" | more

   Use a pipe (|) to direct Cmd.exe to send the dir command output through the find filter
   command. The find command selects only file names that contain the string "LOG." The more
   command displays the file names that are selected by the find command, one Command Prompt
   window at a time. For more information about filter commands, see Using filters.

 
REG
Add, change and display registry subkey information/values in registry entries

  reg add -- Adds a new subkey or entry to the registry

     reg add KeyName [/v EntryName|/ve] [/t DataType] [/s separator] [/d value] [/f]

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the format of
                  \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to
                  default to the local computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree.
                  The valid subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - /v EntryName -- Specifies the name of the entry to be added under the specified subkey.
     - /ve -- Specifies that the entry that is added to the registry has a null value.
     - /t DataType -- Specifies the data type for the value of the entry. DataType can be one
                      of the following:
                      -- REG_SZ
                      -- REG_MULTI_SZ
                      -- REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN
                      -- REG_DWORD
                      -- REG_BINARY
                      -- REG_DWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN
                      -- REG_LINK
                      -- REG_FULL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR
                      -- REG_EXPAND_SZ
     - /s separator -- Specifies the character used to separate multiple instances of data.
                       Used when REG_MULTI_SZ is specified as the data type and more than one
                       entry needs to be listed. If not specified, the default separator is \0.
     - /d value -- Specifies the value for the new registry entry.
     - /f -- Adds the subkey or entry without asking for confirmation.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     Subtrees cannot be added with this operation. This version of Reg does not ask for
     confirmation when adding a subkey.

     The following table lists the return values for the reg add operation.
     Value - Description
       0 - Success
       1 - Failure

       Examples:

     - reg add \hklm\software\myco /v data /t reg_binary /d fe340ead
     - reg add "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /v Name3 /t reg_sz /d Anonymous
     - reg add "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /v Time3 /t reg_dword /d 5


  reg compare -- Compares specified registry subkeys or entries.

     reg compare KeyName1 KeyName2 [/v EntryName | /ve] {[/oa]|[/od]|[/os]|[on]} [/s]

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the format of
                  \\ComputerName\PathtoSubkey. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to
                  default to the local computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree.
                  The valid subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC. If a remote computer
                  is specified, use the HKLM and HKU subtrees only.
     - /v EntryName -- Compares a specific entry under the subkey.
     - /ve -- Specifies that only entries that have no value will be compared.
     - {[/oa]|[/od]|[/os]|[on]} -- Specifies how differences and matches are displayed.
                                   Default is /od.

     Value - Description
      /oa - Specifies that all differences and matches are displayed. By default, only the
            differences are listed.
      /od - Specifies that only differences are displayed. This is the default behavior.
      /os - Specifies that only matches are displayed. By default, only the differences will
            be listed.
      /on - Specifies that nothing is displayed. By default, only the differences will be
            listed.
      /s Separator -- Compares all subkeys and entries.
      /? - Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg compare operation.
     Value - Description
       0 - The comparison is successful and the result is identical.
       1 - The comparison failed.
       2 - The comparison is successful and differences were found.

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg compare command can be used:

       reg compare "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /od /s


  reg copy

     Copies a registry entry to a specified location in the local or remote computer.

     reg copy KeyName1 KeyName2 [/s] [/f]

      Parameters:

     - KeyName1 -- Specifies the full path of the subkey to copy. For remote computers,
                   include the computer name before the path of the subkey in the
                   \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey format. Omitting ComputerName causes the
                   operation to default to the local computer. Start the path with the
                   appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU,
                   and HKCC. If a remote computer is specified, the HKLM and HKU subtrees
                   only can be used.
     - KeyName2 -- Specifies the full path of the subkey destination. For remote computers,
                   include the computer name before the path of the subkey in the
                   \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey format. Omitting ComputerName causes the
                   operation to default to the local computer. Start the path with the
                   appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU, and
                   HKCC. If a remote computer is specified, the HKLM and HKU subtrees only
                   can be used.
     - /s -- Copies all subkeys and entries under the specified subkey.
     - /f -- Copies the subkey without asking for confirmation.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     This version of Reg does not ask for confirmation when copying a subkey.

     The following table lists the return values for the reg copy operation.
     Value - Description
       0 - Success
       1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following examples show how the reg copy command can be used:

     - reg copy "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" "hkcu\software\microsoft\winminebk" /s /f
     - reg copy "hkcu\software\microsoft\winminebk" "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /s


  reg delete

     Deletes a subkey or entries from the registry.

     reg delete KeyName [{/v EntryName|/ve|/va}] [/f]

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey
                  format. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to default to the local
                  computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are
                  HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - /v EntryName -- Deletes a specific entry under the subkey. If no entry is specified, then
                       all entries and subkeys under the subkey will be deleted.
     - /ve -- Specifies that only entries that have no value will be deleted.
     - /va -- Deletes all entries under the specified subkey. Subkeys under the specified subkey
              are not deleted with this parameter.
     - /f -- Deletes the existing registry subkey or entry without asking for confirmation.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

    The following table lists the return values for the reg delete operation.
    Value - Description
      0 - Success
      1 - Failure

      Examples:

    The following examples show how the reg delete command can be used:

    - reg delete "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /v Name1
    - reg delete "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /v Time1
    - reg delete "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /va


  reg export

     Creates a copy of specified subkeys, entries and values into a file so that it can be
     transferred to other servers.

     reg export KeyName FileName

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. The export operation works only with
                  the local computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid
                  subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - FileName -- Specifies the name and path of the file to be exported. The file must have
                   an extension of .reg
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

     Remarks:

    The following table lists the return values for the reg export operation.
    Value - Description
      0 - Success
      1 - Failure

      Examples:

    The following example shows how the reg export command can be used:

    - reg export "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" c:\data\regbackups\wmbkup.reg


  reg import

     Copies a file containing exported registry subkeys, entries and values into the local
     computer's registry.

     reg import FileName

      Parameters:

     - FileName -- Specifies he name and path of the file that will be copied into the registry
                   of the local computer. This file needs to be created beforehand with the reg
                   export operation.
     - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg import operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg import command can be used:

        reg import "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" c:\data\regbackups\wmbkup.reg


  reg load

     Writes saved subkeys and entries back to a different subkey in the registry. This is
     intended to be a temporary file that can be used for troubleshooting or editing registry
     entries.

        reg load KeyName FileName

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey
                  format. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to default to the local
                  computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are
                  HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - FileName -- Specifies the name and path of the file that will be loaded. This file must
                   have been created with the reg save operation using an extension of .hiv.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg load operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg load command can be used:

     reg load "hkcu\software\microsoft\winminebk2" wmbkup.hiv


  reg query

     Returns a list of the next tier of subkeys and entries located under a subkey in the
     registry.

     reg query KeyName [{/v EntryName|/ve}] [/s]

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey
                  format. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to default to the local
                  computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are
                  HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC. If a remote computer is specified, the HKLM
                  and HKU subtrees only can be used.
     - /v EntryName -- Returns a specific entry and its value. This parameter only returns
                       entries that are in the tier directly below the specified subkey. Entries
                       that are located in subkeys under the current subkey will not be found.
                       When EntryName is omitted, all entries under the subkey are returned.
     - /ve -- Specifies that only entries that have no value will be returned.
     - /s -- Returns all subkeys and entries in all tiers. Without this parameter, only the next
             tier of subkeys and entries will be returned.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg query operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following examples show how the reg query command can be used:

     - reg query "hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\session manager" /v maxstacktracedepth
     - reg query "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" /s


  reg restore

     Writes saved subkeys and entries back to the registry.

     reg restore KeyName FileName

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. The restore operation works only with
                  the local computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid
                  subtrees are HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - FileName -- Specifies the name and path of the file that will be written back to the
                   registry. This file needs to be created beforehand with the reg save
                   operation using an extension of .hiv
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     This operation is used to overwrite registry entries that have been edited. Before editing
     entries, save the parent subkey with the reg save operation. If the edit fails, restore the
     subkey with this operation.

     The following table lists the return values for the reg restore operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg restore command can be used:

     reg restore "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" wmbkup.hiv


  reg save

     Saves a copy of specified subkeys, entries and values of the registry in a specified file.

     reg save KeyName FileName

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey
                  format. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to default to the local
                  computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are
                  HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - FileName -- Specifies the name and path of the file that is created. If no path is
                  specified, then the current path is used.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg save operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg restore command can be used:

     reg save "hkcu\software\microsoft\winmine" wmbkup.hiv


  reg unload

     Removes a section of the registry that was loaded using the reg load operation.

     reg unload KeyName

      Parameters:

     - KeyName -- Specifies the full path of the subkey. For remote computers, include the
                  computer name before the path of the subkey in the \\ComputerName\PathToSubkey
                  format. Omitting ComputerName causes the operation to default to the local
                  computer. Start the path with the appropriate subtree. The valid subtrees are
                  HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU and HKCC.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      Remarks:

     The following table lists the return values for the reg unload operation.
     Value - Description

     0 - Success
     1 - Failure

       Examples:

     The following example shows how the reg restore command can be used:

     - reg unload "hkcu\software\microsoft\winminebk2"

     Caution:

     Incorrectly editing the registry may severely damage the system. Before making changes to
     the registry, back up any valued data on the computer.

     Caution:

     Do not edit the registry directly unless there are no alternative. The registry editor
     bypasses standard safeguards, allowing settings that can degrade performance, damage the
     system, or even require Windows to be reinstalled. It is best to safely alter most
     registry settings by using the programs in Control Panel or Microsoft Management Console
     (MMC). If the registry must be edited directly, back it up first. Read the Registry
     Editor Help for more information.

      Remarks:

     Using Reg directly edits the registry of local or remote computers. These changes can
     render the computers inoperable and cause the need for a new installation of the operating
     system. Instead of directly editing the registry, use Control Panel or Microsoft Management
     Console, whenever possible, to make changes to the registry.

     Some operations allow the viewing or configuration of registry entries on local or remote
     computers, while others allow only the configuration of local computers. Also, accessing
     the registry remotely might limit the parameters that are available in an operation. Check
     the syntax for each operation to verify that it can be used on remote computers and to
     verify the parameters that can be used in that situation.

 
REGEDIT
View and edit the Windows System Registry

     regedit [/S\ [/e] [/c] [L:system /R:user] [/d] [reg file name]

      Parameters:

     - regfile -- import/merge a registry file with confirmation
                  Note that if a key has a dash/hyphen before it (and after
                  the open bracket) then that key/tree will be deleted instead
                  of imported/merged. To remove a specific value, the dash or
                  hyphen goes after the equals sign (see example below)
     - /s -- import/merge a registry file without any confirmation
     - /e -- export any portion (per the given key) of the Registry to a file
     - /c -- compress a registry file (available only in Win 98)
     - /d -- delete (available only in Win 95,98 and Me)
     - /L and /r -- specify location of the system.dat file and user.dat file
                    (available only in Win 95,98 and Me)

       Examples:

     - regedit /s newregistrykey.req
     - regedit /e microsoft.txt HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft
     - regedit /L:c:\windows\system.dat /r:c:\windows\user.dat
     - regedit /d microsoft.txt HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft
     - regedit somefile.reg
               whose contents include:

                   REGEDIT4

                   ; @ECHO OFF
                   ; CLS
                   ; REGEDIT.EXE /S "%~f0"
                   ; EXIT

                   [-HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\KeyToRemove]
                   [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\KeyRemoveOnlyOneString]
                    "StringToBeRemoved"=-

               This will remove the entire key/tree "KeyToRemove"
               and it will remove the string for "StringToBeRemoved"
               leaving the rest of KeyRemoveOnlyOneString as it was.
               Note that the line "REGEDIT4" is required.
               The CLS will prevent any popup error messages.
               The EXIT is to get out of here if severe error occurs.
               The REGEDIT statement runs the comand and uses the "%~f0"
               like it does parameters in a batch command file.

 
REGSVR32
Registers .dll files as command components in the registry.

     regsvr32 [/u] [/s] [/n] [/i[:cmdline]] dllname

      Parameters:

     - /u -- Unregisters server.
     - /s -- Specifies regsvr32 to run silently and to not display any message boxes.
     - /n -- Specifies not to call DllRegisterServer, this must be used with option /i.
     - /i:cmdline -- Calls DllInstall passing it an optional [cmdline]. When used with
                     /u it calls dll uninstall.
     - dllname -- Specifies the name of the dll file that will be registered.
     - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

       Examples:

     To register the .dll for the Active Directory Schema, type:

        regsvr32 schmmgmt.dll

 
REM
Enables comments/remarks to be included in batch files and configuration files

  rem [comment]

   Parameters:

  - comment -- Specifies any string of characters to include as a comment.

  /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  Using the echo command to display comments:

    The rem command does not display comments on the screen. The echo on
    command in a batch or Config.nt file is used to display comments.


  Restrictions on batch file comments:

    A redirection character "(" or ")" or pipe (|) cannot be used in a batch
    file comment.


  Using rem to add vertical spacing:

    Although the rem without a comment can be used to add vertical spacing to a
    batch file, blank lines can also be used. The blank lines are ignored when
    processing the batch program.

    Examples:

  The following example shows a batch file that uses remarks for both explanations
  and vertical spacing:

     @echo off
     rem This batch program formats and checks new disks.
     rem It is named Checknew.bat.
     rem
     echo Insert new disk in drive B.
     pause
     format b: /v
     chkdsk b:

  To include an explanatory comment in the Config.nt file before the prompt command,
  add the following lines to Config.nt:

     rem Set prompt to indicate current directory
     prompt $p$g

 
REN
Changes the name of a file or a set of files.

REN [drive:][path]filename1 filename2

RENAME [drive:][path]filename1 filename2

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] filename1 -- Specifies the location and name of the file or set of files
                                 to rename.
   - filename2 -- Specifies the new name for the file. Wildcards (* and ?) are used,
                  filename2 specifies the new names for the files. A new drive or path cannot
                  be specified when renaming files.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Renaming files:
   ===============
   All files matching the specified file name can be renamed. The rename command cannot be
   used to rename files across drives or to move files to a different directory location.

   Using wildcards with rename:
   ============================
   Wildcards (* and ?) can be used in either file name parameter. If wildcards are used in
   filename2, the characters represented by the wildcards will be identical to the
   corresponding characters in filename1.

   Rename will not work if filename2 already exists

   If, for filename2, a file name that already exists is specified, rename displays the
   following message:

      Duplicate file name or file not found

   Examples:

   To change the extensions of all the file names in the current directory that, for
   example, have the extension .txt to .doc extensions, type:

      ren *.txt *.doc

   To rename a file or directory named Chap10 to Part10, type:

      ren chap10 part10

 
RENAME
Renames a file or files.

   See REN

 
REPLACE
Replaces files in the destination directory with files in the source directory that have the
same name.

   replace [drive1:][path1] FileName [drive2:][path2] [/a] [/p] [/r] [/w]
   replace [drive1:][path1] FileName [drive2:][path2] [/p] [/r] [/s] [/w] [/u]

   Parameters:

   - [drive1:][path1] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the source file or set of
                                  files.
   - [drive2:][path2] -- Specifies the location of the destination file. A file name cannot be
                         specified for replaced files. If neither a drive nor a directory is
                         specified, replace uses the current drive and directory as the
                         destination.
   - /a -- Adds new files to the destination directory instead of replacing existing files.
           This command-line option cannot be used with the /s or /u command-line option.
   - /p -- Prompts for confirmation before replacing a destination file or adding a source file.
   - /r -- Replaces read-only files as well as unprotected files. If this command-line option is
           not specified but attempts to replace a read-only file, an error results and stops
           the replacement operation.
   - /w -- Waits for a disk to be inserted before replace begins to search for source files.
           If /w is not specified, replace begins replacing or adding files immediately after
           pressing ENTER.
   - /s -- Searches all subdirectories of the destination directory and replaces matching files.
           The /s command-line option cannot be used with the /a command-line option. The
           replace command does not search subdirectories specified in path1.
   - /u -- Replaces (updates) only those files on the destination directory that are older than
           those in the source directory. The /u command-line option cannot be used with the /a
           command-line option.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   replace can be used to add unique file names to the destination directory.

   Replace messages
   =================
   As replace adds or replaces files, the file names are displayed on the screen. After the
   replace command is finished, a summary line is displayed in one of the following formats:

      nnn files added
      nnn files replaced

      no file added
      no file replaced


   Replacing files on floppy disks
   ================================
   If using floppy disks and need to switch disks during the replace operation, specify the /w
   command-line option so that replace will wait for switching disks, as necessary.

   Limitations on replace

   The replace command cannot be used to update hidden files or system files. For information
   about changing hidden and system attributes, click attrib in the Related Topics list.

   Replace exit codes
   ===================
   The following list shows each exit code and a brief description of its meaning:

      Exit code - Description

      0 - The replace command successfully replaced or added the files.
      1 - The replace command encountered an incorrect version of MS-DOS.
      2 - The replace command could not find the source files.
      3 - The replace command could not find the source or destination path.
      5 - The user does not have access to the files to replace.
      8 - There is insufficient system memory to carry out the command.
      11 - The user used the wrong syntax on the command line.

   The errorlevel parameter can be used on the if command line in a batch program to process
   exit codes returned by replace. For an example of a batch program that processes exit codes,
   click if in the Related Topics list.

   Examples:

   Suppose that several directories on drive C contain different versions of a file named
   Phones.cli, which contains client names and phone numbers. To replace all of these files
   with the latest version of the Phones.cli file from the disk in drive A, type:

      replace a:\phones.cli c:\ /s

   To add new printer device drivers to a directory on drive C named Tools, which already
   contains several printer device-driver files for a word processor:

      replace a:*.prd c:\tools /a

   This command searches the current directory on drive A for any files that have the extension
   .prd and then adds these files to the Tools directory on drive C. Because the /a command-line
   option is included, replace adds only those files from drive A that do not exist on drive C.

 
RMDIR
Removes (deletes) a directory.

See RD

 
RUNAS
Allows a user to run specific tools and programs with different permissions than the user's
current logon provides.

  runas [{/profile|/noprofile}] [/env] [/netonly] [/smartcard] [/showtrustlevels] [/trustlevel]
        /user:UserAccountName program

   Parameters:

  - /profile -- Loads the user's profile. /profile is the default.
  - /no profile -- Specifies that the user's profile is not to be loaded. This allows the
                   application to load more quickly, but it can also cause a malfunction in
                   some applications.
  - /env -- Specifies that the current network environment be used instead of the user's
            local environment.
  - /netonly -- Indicates that the user information specified is for remote access only.
  - /smartcard -- Indicates whether the credentials are to be supplied from a smartcard.
  - /showtrustlevels -- Lists the /trustlevel options.
  - /trustlevel -- Specifies the level of authorization at which the application is to run.
                   Use /showtrustlevels to see the trust levels available.
  - /user:UserAccountName -- Specifies the name of the user account under which to run the
                             program. The user account format should be user@domain or
                             \Domain\User.
  - program -- Specifies the program or command to run using the account specified in /user.
  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

  It is good practice for administrators to use an account with restrictive permissions to
  perform routine, nonadministrative tasks, and to use an account with broader permissions only
  when performing specific administrative tasks. To accomplish this without logging off and
  back on, log on with a regular user account, and then use the runas command to run the tools
  that require the broader permissions.

  For examples of the use of the runas command, see Related Topics.

  The use of runas is not restricted to administrator accounts, although that is the most common
  use. Any user with multiple accounts can use runas to run a program, MMC console, or Control
  Panel item with alternate credentials.

  To use the Administrator account for the /user: parameter, type one of the following:

  - /user:AdministratorAccountName@ComputerName
  - /user:ComputerName\AdministratorAccountName

  To use this command as a domain administrator, type one of the following:

  - /user:AdministratorAccountName@DomainName
  - /user:DomainName\AdministratorAccountName

  Runas allows running programs (*.exe), saved MMC consoles (*.msc), shortcuts to programs and
  saved MMC consoles, and Control Panel items. These can be run as an administrator while logged
  onto the PC as a member of another group, such as the Users or Power Users group.

  Runas can start any program, MMC console, or Control Panel item. As long appropriate user
  account and password information are provided, the user account has the ability to log on to
  the computer, and the program, MMC console, or Control Panel item is available on the system
  and to the user account.

  The runas command allows administering a server in another forest (i.e. the local computer
  running a tool and the server being administered are in different domains).

  When starting a program, MMC console, or Control Panel item from a network location using runas,
  it might fail because the credentials used to connect to the network share are different from
  the credentials used to start the program. The latter credentials may not be able to gain access
  to the same network share.

  Some items, such as the Printers folder and desktop items, are opened indirectly and cannot be
  started with the runas command.

  If the runas command fails, the Secondary Logon service might not be running or the user
  account being used might not be valid. To check the status of the Secondary Logon service, in
  Computer Management, click Services and Applications, and then click Services. To test the user
  account, try logging on to the appropriate domain using the account.

    Examples:

  To start an instance of the command prompt as an administrator on the local computer, type:

  - runas /user:localmachinename\administrator cmd

    When prompted, type the administrator password.

  To start an instance of the Computer Management snap-in using a domain administrator account
  called companydomain\domainadmin, type:

    runas /user:companydomain\domainadmin "mmc %windir%\system32\compmgmt.msc"

    When prompted, type the account password.

  To start an instance of Notepad using a domain administrator account called user in a domain
  called domain.microsoft.com, type:

    runas /user:user@domain.microsoft.com "notepad my_file.txt"

    When prompted, type the account password.

  To start an instance of a command prompt window, saved MMC console, Control Panel item, or
  program that will administer a server in another forest, type:

  - runas /netonly /user:domain\username "command"

    domain\username must be a user with sufficient permissions to administer the server.
    When prompted, type the account password.

 
Scanner/Camera Settings
This is a short cut to start up the SCANNER/CAMERA Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
SCICPL.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
SCHTASKS
Manage Windows scheduled tasks using the command prompt

   This is a HUGE topic, more than is necessary to put here. See
   http://www.microsoft.com
         /resources/documentation/windows/xp/all/proddocs/en-us/ntcmds.mspx?mfr=true
   for a detailed write up about this if it is really necessary.

   Otherwise, it is much easier to use the GUI interface found under the
   Control Panel > Scheduled Tasks

 
Security Policy
This is a short cut to start up the Local Security Policy dialog portion of the
Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
secpol.msc and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Windows Services
This is a short cut to start up the Windows Services Management dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
SERVICES.MSC and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
SET
Displays, sets, or removes cmd.exe environment variables.

SET [variable=[string]]

  variable  Specifies the environment-variable name.
  string    Specifies a series of characters to assign to the variable.

Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables.

If Command Extensions are enabled SET changes as follows:

SET command invoked with just a variable name, no equal sign or value
will display the value of all variables whose prefix matches the name
given to the SET command. For example:

    SET P

would display all variables that begin with the letter 'P'

SET command will set the ERRORLEVEL to 1 if the variable name is not
found in the current environment.

SET command will not allow an equal sign to be part of the name of
a variable.

Two new switches have been added to the SET command:

    SET /A expression
    SET /P variable=[promptString]

The /A switch specifies that the string to the right of the equal sign
is a numerical expression that is evaluated. The expression evaluator
is pretty simple and supports the following operations, in decreasing
order of precedence:

    ()                  - grouping
    ! ~ -               - unary operators
    * / %               - arithmetic operators
    + -                 - arithmetic operators
    << >>               - logical shift
    &                   - bitwise and
    ^                   - bitwise exclusive or
    |                   - bitwise or
    = *= /= %= += -=    - assignment
      &= ^= |= <<= >>=
    ,                   - expression separator

If any of the logical or modulus operators are used, enclose the expression
string in quotes. Any non-numeric strings in the expression are treated as
environment variable names whose values are converted to numbers before
using them. If an environment variable name is specified but is not defined
in the current environment, then a value of zero is used. This allows
arithmetic to be done with environment variable values without having to type
all those % signs to get their values. If SET /A is executed from the command
line outside of a command script, then it displays the final value of the
expression. The assignment operator requires an environment variable name
to the left of the assignment operator. Numeric values are decimal numbers,
unless prefixed by 0x for hexadecimal numbers, and 0 for octal numbers.
So 0x12 is the same as 18 is the same as 022. Please note that the octal
notation can be confusing: 08 and 09 are not valid numbers because 8 and
9 are not valid octal digits.

The /P switch allows a line of input entered by the user to be set as the
value of a variable. Displays the specified promptString before reading
the line of input. The promptString can be empty.

Environment variable substitution has been enhanced as follows:

    %PATH:str1=str2%

would expand the PATH environment variable, substituting each occurrence
of "str1" in the expanded result with "str2". "str2" can be the empty
string to effectively delete all occurrences of "str1" from the expanded
output. "str1" can begin with an asterisk, in which case it will match
everything from the beginning of the expanded output to the first
occurrence of the remaining portion of str1.

May also specify substrings for an expansion.

    %PATH:~10,5%

would expand the PATH environment variable, and then use only the 5
characters that begin at the 11th (offset 10) character of the expanded
result. If the length is not specified, then it defaults to the
remainder of the variable value. If either number (offset or length) is
negative, then the number used is the length of the environment variable
value added to the offset or length specified.

    %PATH:~-10%

would extract the last 10 characters of the PATH variable.

    %PATH:~0,-2%

would extract all but the last 2 characters of the PATH variable.

Finally, support for delayed environment variable expansion has been
added. This support is always disabled by default, but may be
enabled/disabled via the /V command line switch to CMD.EXE. See CMD /?

Delayed environment variable expansion is useful for getting around
the limitations of the current expansion which happens when a line
of text is read, not when it is executed. The following example
demonstrates the problem with immediate variable expansion:

    set VAR=before
    if "%VAR%" == "before" (
        set VAR=after
        if "%VAR%" == "after" @echo If this is seen, then it worked
    )

would never display the message, since the %VAR% in BOTH IF statements
is substituted when the first IF statement is read, since it logically
includes the body of the IF, which is a compound statement. So the
IF inside the compound statement is really comparing "before" with
"after" which will never be equal. Similarly, the following example
will not work as expected:

    set LIST=
    for %i in (*) do set LIST=%LIST% %i
    echo %LIST%

in that it will NOT build up a list of files in the current directory,
but instead will just set the LIST variable to the last file found.
Again, this is because the %LIST% is expanded just once when the
FOR statement is read, and at that time the LIST variable is empty.
So the actual FOR loop we are executing is:

    for %i in (*) do set LIST= %i

which just keeps setting LIST to the last file found.

Delayed environment variable expansion allows the use of a different
character (the exclamation mark) to expand environment variables at
execution time. If delayed variable expansion is enabled, the above
examples could be written as follows to work as intended:

    set VAR=before
    if "%VAR%" == "before" (
        set VAR=after
        if "!VAR!" == "after" @echo If this is seen, then it worked
    )

    set LIST=
    for %i in (*) do set LIST=!LIST! %i
    echo %LIST%

If Command Extensions are enabled, then there are several dynamic
environment variables that can be expanded but which do not show up in
the list of variables displayed by SET. These variable values are
computed dynamically each time the value of the variable is expanded.
If the user explicitly defines a variable with one of these names, then
that definition will override the dynamic one described below:

%CD% - expands to the current directory string.

%DATE% - expands to current date using same format as DATE command.

%TIME% - expands to current time using same format as TIME command.

%RANDOM% - expands to a random decimal number between 0 and 32767.

%ERRORLEVEL% - expands to the current ERRORLEVEL value

%CMDEXTVERSION% - expands to the current Command Processor Extensions
    version number.

%CMDCMDLINE% - expands to the original command line that invoked the
    Command Processor.

 
SETLOCAL
Starts localization of environment variables in a batch file. Localization
continues until a matching endlocal command is encountered or the end of the
batch file is reached.

setlocal {enableextensions | disableextensions} {enabledelayedexpansion
         | disabledelayedexpansion}

   Parameters:

  - enableextensions -- Enables the command extensions until the matching endlocal command is
    encountered, regardless of the setting prior to the setlocal command.
  - disableextensions -- Disables the command extensions until the matching endlocal command
    is encountered, regardless of the setting prior to the setlocal command.
  - enabledelayedexpansion -- Enables the delayed environment variable expansion until the
    matching endlocal command is encountered, regardless of the setting prior to the setlocal
    command.
  - disabledelayedexpansion -- Disables the delayed environment variable expansion until the
    matching endlocal command is encountered, regardless of the setting prior to the setlocal
    command.
  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

    Using setlocal:

      When setlocal is used outside of a script or batch file, it has no effect.


    Changing environmental variables:

      Use setlocal to change environment variables when running a batch file. Environment
      changes made after setlocal is run are local to the batch file. Cmd.exe restores previous
      settings when it either encounters an endlocal command or reaches the end of the batch
      file.

      More than one setlocal or endlocal command in a batch program (i.e. nested commands) can
      be used.


   Testing for command extensions in batch files:

     The setlocal command sets the ERRORLEVEL variable. If either {enableextensions
        | disableextensions} or {enabledelayedexpansion | disabledelayedexpansion} are passed,
     the ERRORLEVEL variable is set to zero (0). Otherwise, it is set to one (1). This can
     be used in batch scripts to determine whether the extensions are available, for example:

        verify other 2>nul
        setlocal enableextensions
        if errorlevel 1 echo Unable to enable extensions

     Because cmd does not set the ERRORLEVEL variable when command extensions are disabled, the
     verify command initializes the ERRORLEVEL variable to a nonzero value when used with an
     invalid argument. Also, if the setlocal command is used with arguments {enableextensions
       | disableextensions} or {enabledelayedexpansion | disabledelayedexpansion} and it does
     not set the ERRORLEVEL variable to one (1), command extensions are not available.

     For more information about enabling and disabling command extensions, see cmd in Related
     Topics.

    Examples:

  Localize environment variables can be used in a batch file, as follows:

     rem *******Begin Comment**************
     rem This program starts the superapp batch program on the network,
     rem directs the output to a file, and displays the file
     rem in Notepad.
     rem *******End Comment**************
     @echo off
     setlocal
     path=g:\programs\superapp;%path%
     call superapp>c:\superapp.out
     endlocal
     start notepad c:\superapp.out

 
SFC:  System File Checker
Validate that the Windows files are the valid ones from Microsoft

   Sfc [/Scannow] [/Scanonce] [/Scanboot] [/Revert] [/Purgecache] [/Cachesize=x]

   Parameters:

   - /Scannow -- Scans all protected system files immediately and replaces incorrect versions
                 with correct Microsoft versions. This command may require access to the
                 Windows installation source files.
   - /Scanonce -- Scans all protected system files one time when the computer is restarted.
                  This command may require access to the Windows installation source files
                  when the computer is restarted. The SfcScan DWORD value is set to 2 in the
                  following registry key when this command is run:
                     HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
   - /Scanboot -- Scans all protected system files every time the computer is restarted.
                  This command may require access to the Windows installation source files
                  every time the computer is retarted. The SfcScan DWORD value is set to 1
                  in the following registry key when this command is rn:
                     HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
   - /Revert -- Returns scan to the default setting (do not scan protected files when the
                computer is restarted).The default cache size is not reset when this command
                is run. This command is equivalent to the /Enable switch in Windows 2000.
   - /Purgecache -- Purges the file cache and scans all protected system files immediately.
                    This command may require access to the Windows installation source files.
   - /Cachesize=x -- Sets the file cache size to x megabytes (MB). The default size of the
                     cache is 50 MB. This command requires the computer to be restarted, and
                     then run the /purgecache command to adjust the size of the on-disk
                     cache. This command sets the SfcQuota DWORD value to x in the following
                     registry key:
                        HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

   Remarks:

   System File Checker gives an administrator the ability to scan all protected files to verify
   their versions. If System File Checker discovers that a protected file has been overwritten,
   it retrieves the correct version of the file from the cache folder
   (%Systemroot%\System32\Dllcache) or the Windows installation source files, and then replaces
   the incorrect file. System File Checker also checks and repopulates the cache folder. Only a
   member of the Administrators group can run System File Checker. If the cache folder becomes
   damaged or unusable, use the sfc /scannow, the sfc /scanonce, or the sfc /scanboot commands
   to repair its contents.

 
SHADOW
Remotely monitor and control another user's Terminal Services session.

   {session_name | session_id} [/server:server_name] [/v]

   Parameters:

   - session_name -- Use this parameter to specify the name of the session to remotely control.
   - session_id -- Use this parameter to specify the identification number (ID) of the session
                   to remotely control.
   - /server:server_name -- Use this parameter to specify the Terminal server that contains the
                            session to remotely control. By default, the current Terminal server
                            is used.
   - /v -- Use this parameter to display information about the actions that are being performed.

   Remarks:

   The shadow command can be used to view or actively control an active session of another user.
   If actively controlling a user's session, input keyboard and mouse actions can be used for
   that session.

   Sessions (except for the current session) on the local PC can be remotely controlled. To do
   so, Full Control access permissions to remotely control another session must be available.

   The local session must be able to support the video resolution that is used for the session
   being remotely controlled. If the session cannot support the video resolution of this
   session, the other session cannot remotely controlled.

   While in this console session, another session cannot be remotely controlled and the session
   cannot be remotely controlled by another session.

   The remote control functionality can be used to observe or actively control another session.

   How to Configure Remote Control Settings:
   =========================================
   To configure remote control for users and sessions, use either Terminal Services
   Configuration or the Terminal Services extensions to Local Users and Groups and the Terminal
   Services extensions to Active Directory for Users and Computers.

   To configure remote control settings:

   - Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Terminal
     Services Configuration.
   - In the console tree, click Connections.
   - Right-click the connection to configure remote control in the details pane, and then click
     Properties.
   - Click the Remote Control tab, and then click Use remote control with the following settings
     to configure remote control for the connection.
   - To configure remote control so that a message is displayed on the client computer that
     prompts the user for permission to view or take part in the session, click to select the
     Require user's permission check box.
   - Under Level of control, click either of the following options:

     -- View the session: Click this option to specify that the user's session can be viewed
        only.
     -- Interact with the session: Click this option to specify that the user's session can be
        actively controlled with the keyboard and mouse.

   Troubleshooting:
   ================
   - The following error message can be received:

        Remote control failed. Error code 7044
        Error [7044]:The request to control another session remotely was denied.

     This message occurs if either there is no response from the computer that is to be
     monitored or if the request is refused. Before monitoring begins, the server prompts the
     user that the session is about to be remotely controlled, (unless this warning is turned
     off). The user of the computer that is to be monitored receives the following message:

        \\server\tester is requesting to control the session remotely.

        Do you accept the request?

     Click Yes on the computer that is to be monitored to allow the session to be monitored.

     For more information about how to configure remote control settings, see the Configure
     Remote Control Settings section of this article.

   - If the shadow command is run from the console session, the following error message may
     be received:

        Remote control failed. Error code 7050
        Error [7050]:The requested session cannot be controlled remotely.

     This may be because the session is disconnected or does not currently have a user
     logged on. This error message occurs because another session cannot be remotely
     controlled while in this console session and the session cannot be remotely controlled
     by another session.

   Examples:

   - To display a list of sessions and their session IDs, type query user at the command
     line on the server, and then press ENTER. The following output is displayed:

          USERNAME    SESSIONNAME    ID  STATE   IDLE TIME  LOGON TIME
          tester      console         0  Active          .  3/26/2011 11:17 AM
         >tester      rdp-tcp#3       1  Active          .  3/26/2011 4:02 PM
          tester      rdp-tcp#6       2  Active         12  3/27/2011 8:44 AM

   - To shadow session 2, type shadow 2.
   - To shadow the session rdp-tcp#3, type shadow rdp-tcp#3.
   - Before monitoring another session, the user of the other session receives the following
     message (unless this warning is disabled):

        \\server\tester is requesting to control the session remotely.

        Do you accept the request?

     The session may stop responding (hang) for a few seconds while the server waits for a
     response from the user.

   - Press CTRL+* to end the remotely controlled session (use the asterisk [*] from the
     numeric keypad only).

   - A hot key can be defined in Terminal Services Manager to end the remotely controlled
     session.

 
SHIFT
Changes the position of batch parameters in a batch file

  shift [/n]

   Parameters:

  - /n -- start shifting at the nth argument, n is between zero and eight

   Remarks:

  Using the shift command-line option with command extensions

    When command extensions are enabled (i.e. the default), the shift
    command supports the /n command-line option, which tells the command to
    start shifting at the nth argument, where n can be a value from zero to
    eight. For example,

       SHIFT /2

    would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, and so on, and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.

    How the shift command works

    The shift command changes the values of the batch parameters %0 through %9
    by copying each parameter into the previous one. In other words, the value
    of %1 is copied to %0, the value of %2 is copied to %1, and so on. This is
    useful for writing a batch file that performs the same operation on any
    number of parameters.


  Working with more than ten batch parameters

   Shift can be used to create a batch file that can accept more than ten batch
   parameters. If more than ten parameters are specified on the command line,
   those that appear after the tenth (%9) will be shifted one at a time into %9.


  Using %* with shift

    Shift has no affect on the %* batch parameter.


  Shifting parameters back

    There is no backward shift command. After the shift command is run, the
    first batch parameter (%0) that existed before the shift is lost.

    Examples:

  The following batch file, Mycopy.bat, shows how to use shift with any number
  of batch parameters. It copies a list of files to a specific directory. The
  batch parameters are represented by the directory and file name arguments.

     @echo off
     rem MYCOPY.BAT copies any number of files
     rem to a directory.
     rem The command uses the following syntax:
     rem mycopy dir file1 file2 ...
     set todir=%1
     :getfile
     shift
     if "%1"=="" goto end
     copy %1 %todir%
     goto getfile
     :end
     set todir=
     echo All done

  The following would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, etc. and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.

      SHIFT /2


 
How to create a shortcut icon on the desktop

To create a shortcut icon on the desktop that can launch an application, use these steps:
  1. Right mouse click anywhere on the desktop (but on an empty space and not on an open window)
  2. Select New
  3. Select Shortcut
  4. Select Browse and select a folder or an application or action to make a short cut for it
  5. Click Next
  6. Type in a meaningful yet short name for the shortcut
  7. Click Finish
  8. Right mouse on the new shortcut icon
  9. Select Properties
  10. Click button Change Icon
  11. A selection of icons to use for the shortcut should appear. If not then either type in the full path to a file that has icon or click the BROWSE button and navigate to a file that has icons. Example files with many icons can be found in %SystemRoot%\system32\SHELL32.dll
Note that the shortcut is usually a program file (i.e. a file with an extension of .EXE). However, it can also be a URL to a website or a full path to a specific folder/directory or even a full path to a specific file.



 
SHUTDOWN
Shut down or restart a local or remote computer.

  shutdown [{-l|-s|-r|-a}] [-f] [-m [\\ComputerName]] [-t xx] [-c "message"]
           [-d[u][p]:xx:yy]

   Parameters:

  - -l -- Logs off the current user, this is also the defualt. -m ComputerName takes precedence.
  - -s -- Shuts down the local computer.
  - -r -- Reboots after shutdown.
  - -a -- Aborts shutdown. Ignores other parameters, except -l and ComputerName. This parameter
          can only be used during the time-out period.
  - -f -- Forces running applications to close.
  - -m [\\ComputerName] -- Specifies the computer to shut down.
  - -t xx -- Sets the timer for system shutdown in xx seconds. The default is 20 seconds.
  - -c "message" -- Specifies a message (enclosed in quotes)) to be displayed (max 127 characters)
                    in the Message area of the System Shutdown window.
  - -d [u][p]:xx:yy -- Lists the reason code for the shutdown. The following table lists the
                       different values.
       Value - Description
         u - Indicates a user code.
         p - Indicates a planned shutdown code.
        xx - Specifies the major reason code (0-255).
        yy - Specifies the minor reason code (0-65536).
  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

  Remarks:

  No parameters will logoff the current user.

  To use major and minor reason codes, they must first be defined on each computer that needs the
  particular reason. If the reason codes are not defined on the target computer, Event Viewer
  cannot log the correct reason text.

    Examples:

  To shut down \\MyServer in 60 seconds, force running applications to close, restart the computer
  after shutdown, indicate a user code, indicate that the shutdown is planned, log major reason
  code 125, and log minor reason code 1, type:

     shutdown -r -f -m \\MyServer -t 60 -d up:125:1

 
SORT
Reads input, sorts data, and writes the results to the screen, to a file,
or to another device

   sort [/r] [/+n] [/m kilobytes] [/l locale] [/rec characters]
      [[drive1:][path1]filename1] [/t [drive2:][path2]] [/o [drive3:][path3]filename3]

   [command |] sort [/r] [/+n] [/m kilobytes] [/l locale] [/rec characters]
      [[drive1:][path1]filename1][/t [drive2:][path2]] [/o [drive3:][path3]filename3]

   Parameters:

   - /r -- Reverses the sort order (i.e. sorts from Z to A, and then from 9 to 0).
   - /+n -- Specifies the character position number, n, at which sort begins each comparison.
   - /m kilobytes -- Specifies the amount of main memory to use for the sort, in kilobytes (KB).
   - /l locale -- Overrides the sort order of characters defined by the system default locale
                 (i.e. the language and Country/Region selected during installation).
   - /rec characters -- Specifies the maximum number of characters in a record, or a line of the
                        input file (the default is 4,096, and the maximum is 65,535).
   - [drive1:][path1]filename1 -- Specifies the file to be sorted. If no file name is specified,
              the standard input is sorted. Specifying the input file is faster than redirecting
              the same file as standard input.
   - /t [drive2:][path2] -- Specifies the path of the directory to hold the sort command's
              working storage, in case the data does not fit in main memory. The default is to
              use the system temporary directory.
   - /o [drive3:][path3]filename3 -- Specifies the file where the sorted input is to be stored.
              If not specified, the data is written to the standard output. Specifying the output
              file is faster than redirecting standard output to the same file.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using the /+n command-line option:
   ==================================
   In using the /+n command-line option, for example, /+3 indicates that each comparison
   should begin at the third character in each line. Lines with fewer than n characters
   collate before other lines. By default, comparisons start at the first character in
   each line.

   Using the /m kilobytes command-line option:
   ===========================================
   The memory used is always a minimum of 160 KB. If the memory size is specified, the
   exact specified amount (but at least 160 KB) is used for the sort, regardless of how
   much main memory is available.

   The default maximum memory size when no size is specified is 90 percent of available
   main memory if both the input and output are files, and 45 percent of main memory
   otherwise. The default setting usually gives the best performance.

   Using the /l locale command-line option:
   ========================================
   Currently, the only alternative to the default locale is the "C" locale, which is
   faster than natural language sorting and sorts characters according to their binary
   encodings.

   Specifying a source:
   ====================
   Unless the command or FileName parameter is specified, sort acts as a filter and takes
   input from the standard input (i.e. usually from the keyboard, from a pipe, or from a file).

   Using redirection symbols with sort:
   ====================================
   The pipe (|) symbol can be used to direct data through the sort command from another
   command, or to direct the sort output to another command (for example, to the more
   command to display information one screen at a time). Using the less than symbol (<)
   or greater than symbol (>) to specify the input file or output file may not be very
   efficient; instead, specify the input file directly (as defined in the command syntax)
   and specify the output file using the /o parameter. This can be much faster, particularly
   with large files.

   Uppercase vs. lowercase:
   ========================
   The sort command does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.

   Limits on file size:
   ====================
   The sort command has no limit on file size.

   Collating sequence:
   ===================
   The sort program uses the collating-sequence table that corresponds to the Country/Region
   code and code-page settings. Characters greater than ASCII code 127 are sorted based on
   information in the Country.sys file or in an alternate file specified by the country command
   in the Config.nt file.

   Memory usage:
   =============
   If the sort fits in memory (i.e. either the default maximum memory size or as specified by
   the /m parameter), the sort is performed in one pass. Otherwise, the sort is performed in
   two passes, such that the amounts of memory used for both the sort and merge passes are
   equal. When two passes are performed, the partially sorted data is stored in a temporary
   file on disk. If there is not enough memory to perform the sort in two passes, a run-time
   error is issued. If the /m command-line option is used to specify more memory than is truly
   available, performance degradation or a run-time error can occur.

   Examples:

   Sorting a file:
   ===============
   The following command reads the file Expenses.txt, sorts it in reverse order, and displays
   it on the screen:

      sort /r expenses.txt

   Sorting the output from a command:
   ==================================
   To search a large file named Maillist.txt for the text "Jones," and to sort the results of
   the search, use the pipe (|) to direct the output of a find command to the sort command,
   as follows:

      find "Jones" maillist.txt | sort

   The command produces a sorted list of lines that contain the specified text.

   Sorting keyboard input:
   =======================
   To sort keyboard input and display the results alphabetically on the screen, first use the
   sort command with no parameters, as follows:

      sort

   Then type the text to be sorted, pressing ENTER at the end of each line. When finished
   typing text, press CTRL+Z, and then press ENTER. The sort command displays the typed text,
   sorted alphabetically.

   Sorted keyboard input can also be redirected to a file. For more information, click redirect
   in the Related Topics list.

 
Sound/Audio Devices
This is a short cut to start up the Volume, Sound and Audio Devices dialog portion
of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
mmsys.cpl and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
START
Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.

Starts a separate Command Prompt window to run a specified program or command.

   start ["title"] [/dPath] [/i] [/min] [/max] [{/separate | /shared}]
         [{/low | /normal | /high | /realtime | /abovenormal | belownormal}]
         [/wait] [/b] [FileName] [parameters]

   Parameters:

   - "title" -- Specifies the title to display in Command Prompt window title bar.
   - /dPath -- Specifies the startup directory.
   - /i -- Passes the Cmd.exe startup environment to the new Command Prompt window.
   - /min -- Starts a new minimized Command Prompt window.
   - /max -- Starts a new maximized Command Prompt window.
   - /separate -- Starts 16-bit programs in a separate memory space.
   - /shared -- Starts 16-bit programs in a shared memory space.
   - /low -- Starts an application in the idle priority class.
   - /normal -- Starts an application in the normal priority class.
   - /high -- Starts an application in the high priority class.
   - /realtime -- Starts an application in the realtime priority class.
   - /abovenormal -- Starts an application in the abovenormal priority class.
   - /belownormal -- Starts an application in the belownormal priority class.
   - /wait -- Starts an application and waits for it to end.
   - /b -- Starts an application without opening a new Command Prompt window. CTRL+C handling is
           ignored unless the application enables CTRL+C processing. Use CTRL+BREAK to interrupt
           the application.
   - FileName -- Specifies the command or program to start.
   - parameters -- Specifies parameters to pass to the command or program.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, start opens a second command prompt window.

   Non-executable files can be run through their file association by typing the name of the file
   as a command. For more information about creating these associations in a command script by
   using assoc and ftype, see Related Topics.

   When runing a command that contains a the string "CMD" as the first token without an extension
   or path qualifier, "CMD" is replaced with the value of the COMSPEC variable. This prevents users
   from picking up cmd from the current directory.

   When running a 32-bit graphical user interface (GUI) application, cmd does not wait for the
   application to quit before returning to the command prompt. This new behavior does not occur
   if running the application from a command script.

   When running a command that uses a first token that does not contain an extension, Cmd.exe uses
   the value of the PATHEXT environment variable to determine which extensions to look for and in
   what order. The default value for the PATHEXT variable is: .COM;.EXE;.BAT;.CMD (i.e., the syntax
   is the same as the PATH variable, with semicolons separating the different elements).

   When searching for an executable and there is no match on any extension, start searches directory
   name. If it does, start opens Explorer.exe on that path.

   Examples:

   To start the Myapp program at the command prompt and retain use of the current Command Prompt
   window, type:

      start myapp

 
START Key plus some other Key
Using the START key

The START key held down then released will, of course, open up the Task Bar main START option.

Holding down the START key and striking another key causes another type of action to occur.
Only some keys struck while holding down the START key will do anything. They are:

   - TAB or SHIFT-TAB -- visually scroll through the Task Bar list
   - BREAK -- Display the System Properties dialog box
   - E -- start up Windows Explorer
   - R -- start up the RUN dialog
   - U -- start up both the Utility Manager dialog and the Narrator dialog
   - D -- toggle either minimizing everything on the desktop (including MS-Office Shortcut Bar if it is running) or maximizing all that it minimized
   - F -- start up the FIND [in] FILES dialog
   - F + CTRL -- Search for computers (on networks)
   - L -- lock the keyboard and return the screen to the User logon
   - M -- minimize everything on the desktop (except the Task Bar and MS-Office Shortcut Bar if it is running)

 
SUBST
Associates a path with a drive letter. Used without parameters,
subst displays the names of the virtual drives in effect.

   subst [drive1: [drive2:]Path]

   subst drive1: /d

   Parameters:

   - drive1: -- Specifies the virtual drive to assign a path.
   - drive2: -- Specifies the physical drive that contains the specified
                path (if different from the current drive).
   - Path -- Specifies the path to assign to a virtual drive.
   - /d -- Deletes a virtual drive.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The following commands do not work, or should not be used, on drives
   used in the subst command:

      chkdsk
      diskcomp
      diskcopy
      format
      label
      recover

   The drive1 parameter must be within the range specified by the lastdrive
   command. If not, subst displays the following error message:

      Invalid parameter - drive1:

   Examples:

   To create a virtual drive Z for the path B:\User\Betty\Forms, type:

      subst z: b:\user\betty\forms

   Now, instead of typing the full path, this directory can be reaced by
   typing the letter of the virtual drive, followed by a colon, as follows:

      z:

 
System Properties Settings
This is a short cut to start up the SSYSTEM PROPERTIES Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
SYSDM.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
System Files Editor
This is a short cut to start up the SYSTEM FILES EDITOR portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
SYSEDIT.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
SYSTEMINFO
Displays detailed configuration information about a computer and its operating system,
including operating system configuration, security information, product ID, and hardware
properties, such as RAM, disk space, and network cards.

  systeminfo[.exe] [/s Computer [/u Domain\User [/p Password]]] [/fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV}] [/nh]

   Parameters:

  - /s Computer -- Specifies the name or IP address of a remote computer (do not use
                   backslashes). The default is the local computer.
  - /u Domain\User -- Runs the command with the account permissions of the user specified by
                      User or Domain\User. The default is the permissions of the current
                      logged on user on the computer issuing the command.
  - /p Password -- Specifies the password of the user account that is specified in the
                   /u parameter.
  - /fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV} -- Specifies the format to use for the output. Valid values are TABLE,
                            LIST, and CSV. The default format for output is LIST.
  - /nh -- Suppresses column headers in the output. Valid when the /fo parameter is set to
           TABLE or CSV.
  - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

    Examples:

  The following examples show how to use the systeminfo command:

  - systeminfo.exe /s srvmain
  - systeminfo.exe /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln
  - systeminfo /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23 /fo table

 
TASKKILL
Ends one or more tasks or processes.

   taskkill [/s Computer] [/u Domain\User [/p Password]]] [/fi FilterName]
            [/pid ProcessID]|[/im ImageName] [/f][/t]

   Parameters:

   - /s Computer -- Specifies the name or IP address of a remote computer (do not use
                    backslashes). The default is the local computer.
   - /u Domain\User -- Runs the command with the account permissions of the user specified
                       by User or Domain\User. The default is the permissions of the current
                       logged on user on the computer issuing the command.
   - /p Password -- Specifies the password of the user account that is specified in the /u
                    parameter.
   - /fi FilterName -- Specifies the types of process(es) to include in or exclude from
                       termination. The following are valid filter names, operators and
                       values.

      Name              Operators                       Value
      ==============    ========================        ====================================
      Hostname          eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      Status            eq, ne                          RUNNING|NOT RESPONDING
      Imagename         eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      PID               eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid positive integer.
      Session           eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid session number.
      CPUTime           eq, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Valid time in the format of hh:mm:ss.
                                                        The mm and ss parameters should be
                                                        between 0 and 59 and hh can be any
                                                        valid unsigned numeric value.
      Memusage          eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid integer.
      Username          eq, ne                          Any valid user name ([Domain\]User).
      Services          eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      Windowtitle       eq, ne                          Any valid string.

   - /pid ProcessID -- Specifies the process ID of the process to be terminated.
   - /im ImageName -- Specifies the image name of the process to be terminated. Use the
                      wildcard (*) to specify all image names.
   - /f -- Specifies that process(es) be forcefully terminated. This parameter is ignored for
           remote processes; all remote processes are forcefully terminated.
   - /t -- Specifies to terminate all child processes along with the parent process, commonly
           known as a tree kill.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Processes can be killed by process ID or image name.

   The wildcard character (*) is accepted only when specified along with the filters.

   Termination for remote processes will always be done forcefully regardless of whether the
   /f parameter is specified.

   Supplying a computer name to the HOSTNAME filter will cause a shutdown and all processes
   will be stopped.

   Use tasklist to determine the Process ID (PID) for the process to be terminated.

   Taskkill is a replacement for the Kill tool.

   Examples:

      - taskkill /pid 1230 /pid 1241 /pid 1253
      - taskkill /f /fi "USERNAME eq NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM" /im notepad.exe
      - taskkill /s srvmain /f /im notepad.exe
      - taskkill /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23 /fi "IMAGENAME eq note*" /im *
      - taskkill /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /fi "USERNAME ne NT*" /im *
      - taskkill /f /fi "PID ge 1000" /im *

 
TASKLIST
Displays a list of applications and services with their Process ID (PID) for all tasks running
on either a local or a remote computer.

   tasklist[.exe] [/s computer] [/u domain\user [/p password]] [/fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV}] [/nh]
                  [/fi FilterName [/fi FilterName2 [ ... ]]] [/m [ModuleName] | /svc | /v]

   Parameters:

   /s Computer -- Specifies the name or IP address of a remote computer (do not use
                  backslashes). The default is the local computer.
   /u Domain\User -- Runs the command with the account permissions of the user specified by
                     User or Domain\User. The default is the permissions of the current
                     logged on user on the computer issuing the command.
   /p Password -- Specifies the password of the user account that is specified in the /u
                  parameter.
   /fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV} -- Specifies the format to use for the output. Valid values are
                           TABLE, LIST, and CSV. The default format for output is TABLE.
   /nh -- Suppresses column headers in the output. Valid when the /fo parameter is set to
          TABLE or CSV.
   /fi FilterName -- Specifies the types of process(es) to include in or exclude from the
                     query. The following table lists valid filter names, operators, and
                     values.

      Name              Operators                       Value
      ==============    ========================        ====================================
      Hostname          eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      Status            eq, ne                          RUNNING|NOT RESPONDING
      Imagename         eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      PID               eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid positive integer.
      Session           eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid session number.
      SessionName       eg, ne                          Any valid string.
      CPUTime           eq, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Valid time in the format of hh:mm:ss.
                                                        The mm and ss parameters should be
                                                        between 0 and 59 and hh can be any
                                                        valid unsigned numeric value.
      Memusage          eg, ne, gt, lt, ge, le          Any valid integer.
      Username          eq, ne                          Any valid user name ([Domain\]User).
      Services          eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      Windowtitle       eq, ne                          Any valid string.
      Modules           eq, ne                          Any valid string.

   /m [ModuleName] -- Specifies to show module information for each process. When a module is
                      specified, all the processes using that module are shown. When a module
                      is not specified, all the processes for all the modules are shown. This
                      cannot be used with the /svc or the /v parameter.
   /svc -- Lists all the service information for each process without truncation. Valid when
           the /fo parameter is set to TABLE. Cannot be used with the /m or the /v parameter.
   /v -- Specifies that verbose task information be displayed in the output. Cannot be used
         with the /svc or the /m parameter.
   /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   RemarksL

   Tasklist is a replacement for the TList tool.

   Examples:

   - tasklist /v /fi "PID gt 1000" /fo csv
   - tasklist /fi "USERNAME ne NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM" /fi "STATUS eq running"
   - tasklist /v /fi "STATUS eq running"
   - tasklist /s srvmain /nh
   - tasklist /s srvmain /s srvny
   - tasklist /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23 /nh

 
TASKMGR
This is a short cut to start up the Windows Task Manager. Task Manager can control
the applications and processes that are running on the computer.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
taskmgr and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Telephony Settings
This is a short cut to start up the TELEPHONY Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
TELEPHON.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
TELNET
Communicate with a remote computer that is using the telnet protocol.

   telnet [\\RemoteServer] [Port] [/a] [/e] [/f] [/l] [/t]

   Remarks:

   Telnet can be run without parameters in order to enter the telnet context, indicated by the telnet prompt (telnet>). From the telnet prompt, use the following commands to manage a computer running Telnet Client.

   The tlntadmn commands allows remote management of a computer running Telnet Server. These commands are run from the command prompt. Used without parameters, tlntadmn displays local server settings.

   To use telnet commands at the telnet prompt

   To start Telnet Client and to enter the telnet prompt

      telnet [\\RemoteServer]

   Parameters:

   - \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to which to connect.
   - Port -- Specifies the port number to which to connect.
   - /a --  Attempt automatic logon. Same as -l option except uses the currently logged on user's name.
   - /e --  Escape character to enter telnet client prompt.
   - /f --  File name for client side logging
   - /l --  Specifies the user name to log in with on the remote system. Requires that the remote system support the TELNET ENVIRON option.
   - /t --  Specifies terminal type. Supported term types are vt100, vt52, ansi and vtnt only.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Used without parameters, telnet starts Telnet Client. When at the telnet prompt, telnet commands must be used. The Telnet Client commands are:

   To stop Telnet Client, use either of these in the Telnet Client:

      - q or quit                          Stop/end/exit Telnet Client
      - o or open [\\RemoteServer] [Port]  Connect to a remote computer
      - c or close [\\RemoteServer]        Disconnect from a remote computer
      - d or display                       Display operating parameters
      - set                                Set options
                                           Type 'set ?' to see options list
      - sen or send                        Send strings to the server
                                           Type 'sen ?' to see options list
      - st or status                       Print status information
      - u or unset                         Unset options
                                           type 'unset ?' to see options list
                                           same as for SET except for logfile, mode and term
      - ? or help                          Print help information

      If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.
      If a port is not specified, the default port is assumed.

      The options for the Telnet Client command 'SET' and 'UNSET' (except for logfile, mode and term) are:

         - bsasdel -- Sets BACKSPACE to be sent as delete.
         - crlf -- Sets the new line mode, which causes the ENTER key to send 0x0D, 0x0A.
         - delasbs -- Sets DELETE to be sent as backspace.
         - localecho -- Turns on local echo.
         - logging -- Turns on logging. If no log file is set, an error message appears.
         - ntlm -- Turns on NTLM authentication if it is available on the remote server.
         - escape Character -- Sets the escape character. The escape character can be a single character, or it can be a combination of the CTRL key plus a character. To set a control-key combination, hold down CTRL while typing the character to be assigned. To unassign or unset the escape character, use 'unset escape' without specifying a character.
         - logfile FileName -- Sets the file to be used for logging telnet activity. The log file must be on the local computer. Logging begins automatically when setting this option.
         - mode {console | stream} -- Sets the mode of operation.
         - term {ansi | vt100 | vt52 | vtnt} -- Sets the terminal to the specified type.
         - ? -- Allows viewing the complete syntax for this command.

      The options for the Telnet Client command 'SEN' are:

         - ao -- Aborts output command.
         - ayt -- Sends an "Are you there?" command.
         - esc -- Sends the current escape character.
         - ip -- Interrupts the process command.
         - synch -- Performs the telnet sync operation.
         - ? -- Allows viewing of the complete syntax for this command.

   Examples of the Telnet Client options:

   To set Telnet Client options, use this in the Telnet Client:

      set [\\RemoteServer] [ntlm] [localecho] [term {ansi | vt100 | vt52 | vtnt}] [escape Character] [logfile FileName] [logging] [bsasdel] [crlf] [delasbs] [mode {console | stream}] [?]

      If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   To turn off an option that was previously set, at the telnet prompt, type:

      unset [Option]

   To set the escape character, type:

      e Character

      Note that on non-English versions of telnet, the codeset Option is available. Codeset Option sets the current code set to an option, which can be any one of the following: Shift JIS, Japanese EUC, JIS Kanji, JIS Kanji (78), DEC Kanji, NEC Kanji. The local PC needs to use the same code set on the remote computer.

   To send Telnet Client commands

      send [\\RemoteServer] [ao] [ayt] [esc] [ip] [synch] [?]

      If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   To view the current settings for the Telnet Client

      display

      The display command lists the currently operating parameters for the Telnet Client. If in a telnet session (i.e., if connected to a telnet server), exit the telnet session to modify the parameters by pressing CTRL+]. To return to the telnet session, press ENTER.


   Examples of the Telnet Server options:



   FOR MORE INFORMATION, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc772789%28WS.10%29.aspx



   tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] [start] [stop] [pause] [continue] [-s] [-k{SessionID | all}] [-m {SessionID | all} "Message"]

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

      - \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server that is to be managed.
      - start -- Starts Telnet Server.
      - stop -- Stops Telnet Server.
      - pause -- Interrupts Telnet Server.
      - continue -- Resumes Telnet Server.
      - /s -- Displays active telnet sessions.
      - /k{SessionID | all} -- Terminates sessions. Type the session ID to terminate a specific session, or type all to terminate all sessions.
      - /m {SessionID | all} "Message" -- Sends a message to one or more sessions. Type the session ID to send a message to a specific session, or type all to send a message to all sessions. Type the message to send between quotation marks (i.e. "Message").
      - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

      If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands can be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   To set logging options on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [auditlocation={eventlog | file | both}] [audit=[{+ | -}admin][{+ | -}user][{+ | -}fail]]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   auditlocation={eventlog | file | both} -- Specifies whether to send event information to Event Viewer, to a file, or to both.

   audit=[{+ | -}admin][{+ | -}user][{+ | -}fail] -- Specifies which events to audit (administrative logon events, user logon events, or failed logon attempts). To audit events of a particular type, type a plus sign (+) before that event type. To stop auditing events of a particular type, type a minus sign (-) before that event type.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   If where to send event information is specified without specifying which type or types of information to audit, only information about administrative logon events will be audited and sent to the location specified.

   Examples:

   To send event information to Event Viewer, type:

      tlntadmn config auditlocation=eventlog

   To audit administrative logon events and failed logon attempts, type:

      tlntadmn config audit=+admin +fail

   To set the default domain on a computer running Telnet Server

     tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [dom=DomainName]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   dom=DomainName -- Specifies the domain to make the default domain.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   Examples:

   To make Redmond the default domain on the local server, type:

      tlntadmn config dom=Redmond

   To map the Alt key on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [ctrlakeymap={yes | no}]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   ctrlakeymap={yes | no} -- Specifies whether the Telnet Server should interpret CTRL+A as ALT. Type yes to map the shortcut key, or type no to prevent mapping.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   If the ALT key is not mapped, Telnet Server does not send the ALT key to applications that might rely on that key.

   To set the maximum number of connections on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [maxconn=PositiveInteger]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   maxconn=PositiveInteger -- Sets the maximum number of connections. This number must be specified with a positive integer that is smaller than 10 million.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   To set the maximum number of failed logon attempts on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [maxfail=PositiveInteger]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   maxfail=PositiveInteger -- Sets the maximum number of failed logon attempts that a user is allowed. This number must be specified with a positive integer that is smaller than 100.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   To set the mode of operation on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [mode={console | stream}]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name for the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   mode={console | stream} -- Specifies the mode of operation.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   To set the telnet port on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [port=IntegerValue]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   port=IntegerValue -- Sets the telnet port. The port must be specified with an integer smaller than 1,024.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   To set the methods of authentication on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [sec=[{+ | -}ntlm][{+ | -}passwd]]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   sec=[{+ | -}ntlm][{+ | -}passwd] -- Specifies whether to use NTLM, a password, or both to authenticate logon attempts. To use a particular type of authentication, type a plus sign (+) before that type of authentication. To prevent using a particular type of authentication, type a minus sign (-) before that type of authentication.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   NTLM is the authentication protocol for transactions between two computers where one or both computers is running Windows NT 4.0 or an earlier version. In addition, NTLM is the authentication protocol for computers that are not participating in a domain, such as stand-alone servers and workgroups.

   To set the time-out for idle sessions on a computer running Telnet Server

      tlntadmn [\\RemoteServer] config [timeout=hh:mm:ss]

   Parameters:

   \\RemoteServer -- Specifies the name of the server to manage. If a server is not specified, the local server is assumed.

   timeout=hh:mm:ss -- Sets the time-out period in hours, minutes, and seconds.

   /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   A computer running Telnet Server can be remotely administered using the tlntadmn commands if both computers are running Windows XP. The tlntadmn commands cannot be used to remotely administer a computer running Windows 2000 and Telnet Server from a computer that is running Windows XP.

   Remarks:

   To switch from Telnet Client to command mode, at the telnet prompt, press CTRL+ ]. To switch back to Telnet Client, press ENTER.

 
TIME
Displays or sets the system time. Used without parameters, time displays the system time and
prompts you to enter a new time.

   time [/t] [/time] [hours:[minutes[:seconds[.hundredths]]][{A|P}]]

   Parameters:

   - /t -- Displays the current system time, without prompting to enter a new time.
   - / time -- Same as /t.
   - hours -- Specifies the hour. Valid values are in the range 0 through 23.
   - minutes -- Specifies minutes. Valid values are in the range 0 through 59.
   - seconds -- Specifies seconds. Valid values are in the range 0 through 59.
   - hundredths -- Specifies hundredths of a second. Valid values are in the range 0 through 99.
   - {A|P} -- Specifies A.M or P.M. for the 12-hour time format. If a valid 12-hour time is
              typed but do not type A or P, time uses A for A.M.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   When using time without parameters, press ENTER to keep the same time.

   Using the /t parameter:
   =======================
   The /t command-line option is only available if command extensions are enabled (i.e., the
   default). For more information about enabling and disabling command extensions, see cmd in
   Related Topics.

   Specifying an invalid time format:
   ==================================
   If the time is specified in an invalid format the following message is displayed and the
   system then waits for entry of the time in the correct format:

      Invalid time
      Enter new time:_


   Changing the time format:
   =========================
   The time format can be changed by changing the setting in Date and Time in Control Panel.
   For just the MS-DOS subsystem, change the country setting in thr Config.nt file. Depending
   on the Country/Region selected, time is displayed in the 12-hour format or the 24-hour
   format. If setting the time in the 12-hour format, specify P for hours after noon.

   Examples:

   To set the computer clock to 1:36 P.M., type either of the following commands:

      time 13:36
      time 1:36P

 
System Clock Time/Date Settings
This is a short cut to start up the SYSTEM CLOCK TIME/DATE Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
TIMEDATE.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
TITLE
Sets the window title for the command prompt window.

   title [string]

   Parameters:

   string -- Specifies the title for the command prompt window.
   /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   To use the window title for batch programs, include the title command at
   the beginning of a batch program.

   Once set, the window title can be reset with the title command only.

   Examples:

   To set the window title for a batch program, type:

      rem This batch program updates the employee data:
      cls
      @echo off
      title Updating Files
      copy \\server\share\*.xls c:\users\common\*.xls
      echo Files Updated.

 
TREE
Graphically displays the folder structure of a drive or path.

tree [Drive:][Path] [/f] [/a]

   Parameters:

   Drive: -- Specifies the drive that contains the disk to display the directory structure.
   Path -- Specifies the directory to display the directory structure.
   /f -- Displays the names of the files in each directory.
   /a -- Specifies that tree is to use text characters instead of graphic characters to show
         the lines linking subdirectories.
   /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   The structure displayed by tree depends upon the parameters specified on the command line.
   If a drive or path is not specified, tree displays the tree structure beginning with the
   current directory of the current drive.

   Examples:

   To display the names of all the subdirectories on the disk in the current drive, type:

      tree \

   To display, one screen at a time, the files in all the directories on drive C, type:

      tree c:\ /f | more

   To print the same list that the previous example displayed, type:

      tree c:\ /f prn

 
TSCON
Attaches a user session to a terminal session. Permission must be granted.

   tscon {SessionID | SessionName} [/dest:SessionName] [/password:pw] [/v]

   Parameters:

   - SessionID -- The ID of the session to which to connect. If the optional /dest:SessionName
                  parameter is used, this is the ID of the session to which to connect.
   - SessionName -- The name of the session to connect.
   - /dest:SessionName -- Specifies the name of the current session. This session will disconnect
                          when connecting to a new session.
   - /password:Password -- The password of the user who owns the session to which to connect.
                          This password is required when the connecting user does not own the
                          session.
   - /v -- Displays information about the actions being performed.
   - /? --  Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Full Control access permission must be available or Connect special access permission to
   connect to another session.

   The /dest:SessionName parameter allows connecting the session of another user to a different
   session.

   If a password is not specified in the Password parameter, and the target session belongs to a
   user other than the current one, tscon fails.

   Connect to the console session is not possible.

   Examples:

   To connect to session 12 on the current terminal server and disconnect the current session,
   type:

      tscon 12

   To connect to session 23 on the current terminal server, using the password mypass, and
   disconnect the current session, type:

      tscon 23 /password:mypass

   To connect the session named TERM03 to the session named TERM05, and then disconnect session
   TERM05, if it is connected, type:

      tscon TERM03 /v /dest:TERM05

 
TSDISCON
Disconnects a session from a terminal server.

   tsdiscon [{SessionID | SessionName}] [/server:ServerName] [/v]

   Parameters:

   - SessionID -- The ID of the session to disconnect.
   - SessionName -- The name of the session to disconnect.
   - /server:ServerName -- Specifies the terminal server containing the session to disconnect.
                           Otherwise, the current terminal server is used.
   - /v -- Displays information about the actions being performed.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Full Control permission must be available to disconnect another user from a session.

   If no session ID or session name is specified, tsdiscon disconnects the current session.

   Any applications that were running when disconnect the session are automatically running
   when reconnect to that session with no loss of data. Use Reset session to end the running
   applications of the disconnected session, but be aware that this might result in loss of
   data at the session.

   The /server parameter is required only if tsdiscon is being used from a remote server.

   The console session cannot be disconnected.

   Examples:

   To disconnect the current session, type:

      tsdiscon

   To disconnect session 10, type:

      tsdiscon 10

   To disconnect the session named TERM04, type:

      tsdiscon TERM04

 
TSKILL
Ends a process.

   tskill {ProcessID | ProcessName} [/server:ServerName] [{/id:SessionID | /a}] [/v]

   Parameters:Parameters

   - ProcessID -- The ID of the process to end.
   - ProcessName -- The name of the process to end. Wildcards can be used to specify this
                    parameter.
   - /server:ServerName -- Specifies the terminal server containing the process to end.
                           Otherwise, the current terminal server is used.
   - /id:SessionID -- Ends the process running in the specified session.
   - /a -- Ends the process running in all sessions.
   - /v -- Displays information about the actions being performed.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   tskill can be used to end only those processes belonging to the PC. Administrator can
   always used tskill since they have full access to all tskill functions and can end
   processes running in other user sessions.

   When all processes running in a session end, the session also ends.

 
TYPE
Displays the contents of a text file or files.

   TYPE [drive:][path]filename

   Parameters:

   - [Drive:][Path] FileName -- Specifies the location and name of the file or files to view.
                                Separate multiple file names with spaces.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   If using an NTFS drive and FileName contains spaces, use quotation marks around the text
   (i.e., "File Name").

   If displaying a binary file or a file created by a program, strange characters may be seen
   on the screen, including formfeed characters and escape-sequence symbols. These characters
   represent control codes used in the binary file. In general, avoid using the type command
   to display binary files.

   Examples:

   To display the contents of a file named Holiday.mar, type:

      type holiday.mar

   To display the contents of a lengthy file one screen at a time, type:

      type holiday.mar | more

 
Users Account Management
This is a short cut to start up the Users Account dialog.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
'control userpasswords2' and click OK.  Of course, it can also be entered at the
C:\ prompt in a CMD window.

 
VER
Displays the Windows XP version.

   ver

   Parameters:

   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

 
VERIFY
Tells cmd.exe to verify that the disk files are written correctly

   VERIFY [ON | OFF]

   Type VERIFY without a parameter to display the current VERIFY setting.

   NOTE that this command is not valid on Windows XP or higher

 
VOL
Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist.

   vol [Drive:]

   Parameters:

   - Drive: : Specifies the drive that contains the disk for which you want to display
              the volume label and serial number.
   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

Windows Shortcut Keys
These are the short cuts available in most Windows applications.
ALT + - (ALT + hyphen)
Displays the Multiple Document Interface (MDI) child window's System menu
ALT + CTRL + DEL
Start up the system Task Manager dialog
ALT + ENTER
View properties for the application in focus, or, toggle command prompt to/from full-screen
ALT + ESC
Cycle through applications in the order that they were opened
ALT + F4
Close the active application and exit
ALT + SPACEBAR
Display the System menu for the active window
ALT + TAB
Switch between open applications on the Task Bar
ALT + Underlined Letter
Display the corresponding menu
BACKSPACE
View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer
CTRL (while dragging the mouse pointer)
Copy selected item into the Windows clipboard
CTRL + ALT + DEL
Start up the system Task Manager dialog
CTRL + ARROW DOWN
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph
CTRL + ARROW LEFT
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word
CTRL + ARROW RIGHT
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word
CTRL + ARROW UP
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph
CTRL + SHIFT
while dragging Create shortcut to selected item
CTRL + ESC
Display the Start menu
CTRL + F4
Close the active document
CTRL + A
Select all on the screen
CTRL + B
Bold the highlighted text
CTRL + C
Copy the highlighted text into the Windows clipboard
CTRL + I
Italicize the highlighted text
CTRL + O
Open an item
CTRL + U
Underline the highlighted text
CTRL + V
Paste the contents of the Windows clipboard at wherever the cursor is
CTRL + X
Cut the highlighted text into the Windows clipboard
CTRL + Z
Undo the previous action
DEL + CTRL + ALT
Start up the system Task Manager dialog
ESC
Cancel the current task
F1
Display Help
F2
Rename the selected item (can also be used on desktop icons)
F3
Search for a file or folder
F4
Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer
F5
Refresh the active window
F6
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
F10
Activate the menu bar in the active program
SHIFT + CTRL + ESC
Launch the Task Manager
SHIFT + DELETE
Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin
SHIFT + F10
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
SHIFT (when insert a CD)
Prevent the CD from automatically playing

Windows Explorer
These are the short cut keys available in Windows Explorer.
ALT + ARROW LEFT
Move backward to a previous folder or file
ALT + ARROW RIGHT
Move forward to the next folder or file
ALT + ENTER
Start up the Properties dialog of the highlighted folder or file
ALT + F4
Close the current window, exit
ALT + SPACEBAR
Display the system menu of the application in focus
ALT + TAB
Switch to the window last used
ARROW LEFT
While in Folders pane, alternatively either move to the parent folder or close the child folders
ARROW RIGHT
While in Folders pane, alternatively either open the child folders or move to the first/next child folders
BACKSPACE
View the folder one level up
CTRL + +
Automatically resize the columns in the right hand pane
CTRL + A
Select all files for the currently highlighted folder
CTRL + C
Copy highlighted folders or files into the Windows clipboard
CTRL + ESC
Display the Start menu
CTRL + V
Paste from the Windows clipboard into whatever (folder) is highlighted
CTRL + X
Cut highlighted folders or files into the Windows clipboard
CTRL + Z
Undo last action
F10
Activate the menu bar in programs
F2
Rename the highlighted folder or file
F3
Display Find application
F5
Refresh window contents
F6
Switch between left and right panes (and the Address Bar if visible)
SHIFT + DELETE
Delete the highlighted folders or files (after verification)
SHIFT + F10
Open the context menu for the highlighted folder or file (thus use Up/Down arrows to navigate the menu)
TAB or SHIFT + TAB
Navigate through the left and right panes (and the Address Bar if visible)
SOME TIPS
Click on a column heading to toggle sorting the column by ascending or descending
SOME TIPS
Double-click on the line of a column heading to make it be the width of its largest file name

 
WordPad Editor
This is a short cut to start up the WordPad editor. Optionally, the name of the
file to edit can be given. Otherwise, a new empty file is started.

This simple word processor is useful for viewing and modifying files whose contents
is made up only of basic formatting. The formatting includes:

   - bold, italics, underline
   - font family and size and color
   - bulleted lists
   - Images

No tables or numbered lists or spell checker or thesaurus are available.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
WRITE and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
Security Center Settings
This is a short cut to start up the Security Center Settings portion of the Control Panel.

Either make a shortcut on the desktop with this or do START then RUN then type in
WSCUI.CPL and click OK. Of course, it can also be entered at the C:\ prompt in a
CMD window.

 
XCOPY
Copies files and directories, including subdirectories.

   xcopy Source [Destination] [/w] [/p] [/c] [/v] [/q] [/f] [/l] [/g]
   [/d[:mm-dd-yyyy]] [/u] [/i] [/s [/e]] [/t] [/k] [/r] [/h] [{/a|/m}]
   [/n] [/o] [/x] [/exclude:file1[+[file2]][+[file3]] [{/y|/-y}] [/z]

   Parameters:

   Source -- Required. Specifies the location and names of the files to copy.
   This parameter must include either a drive or a path.

   Destination -- Specifies the destination of the files to copy. This
   parameter can include a drive letter and colon, a directory name, a file
   name, or a combination of these.

   - /p -- Prompts to confirm whether to create each destination file.
   - /c -- Ignores errors.
   - /v -- Verifies each file as it is written to the destination file to
           make sure that the destination files are identical to the source
           files.
   - /q -- Suppresses the display of xcopy messages.
   - /f -- Displays source and destination file names while copying.
   - /l -- Displays a list of files that are to be copied.
   - /g -- Creates decrypted destination files.
   - /d[:mm-dd-yyyy] -- Copies source files changed on or after the specified
           date only. If a mm-dd-yyyy value is not included, xcopy copies all
           Source files that are newer than existing Destination files. This
           command-line
      option allows updating only the files that have changed.
   - /u -- Copies files from Source that exist on Destination only.
   - /i -- If Source is a directory or contains wildcards and Destination does
           not exist, xcopy assumes destination specifies a directory name and
           creates a new directory. Then, xcopy copies all specified files into
           the new directory. By default, xcopy prompts to specify whether
           Destination is a file or a directory.
   - /s -- Copies directories and subdirectories, unless they are empty. If /s
           is omitted, xcopy works within a single directory.
   - /e -- Copies all subdirectories, even if they are empty. Use /e with the
           /s and /t command-line options.
   - /t -- Copies the subdirectory structure (i.e. the tree) only, not files.
           To copy empty directories, include the /e command-line option.
   - /k -- Copies files and retains the read-only attribute on destination files
           if present on the source files. By default, xcopy removes the
           read-only attribute.
   - /r -- Copies read-only files.
   - /h -- Copies files with hidden and system file attributes. By default,
           xcopy does not copy hidden or system files.
   - /a -- Copies only source files that have their archive file attributes set.
           /a does not modify the archive file attribute of the source file. For
           information about how to set the archive file attribute by using
           attrib, see Related Topics.
   - /m -- Copies source files that have their archive file attributes set.
           Unlike /a, /m turns off archive file attributes in the files that are
           specified in the source. For information about how to set the archive
           file attribute by using attrib, see Related Topics.
   - /n -- Creates copies by using the NTFS short file or directory names. /n is
           required to copy files or directories from an NTFS volume to a FAT
           volume or when the FAT file system naming convention (i.e. 8.3
           characters) is required on the destination file system. The destination
           file system can be FAT or NTFS.
   - /o -- Copies file ownership and discretionary access control list (DACL)
           information.
   - /x -- Copies file audit settings and system access control list (SACL)
           information (implies /o).
   - /exclude:filename1[+[filename2]][+[filename3]] -- Specifies a list of files
           containing strings.
   - /y -- Suppresses prompting to confirm to overwrite an existing destination
           file.
   - /-y -- Prompts to confirm to overwrite an existing destination file.
   - /z -- Copies over a network in restartable mode.
   - /w -- Displays the following message and waits for a response before s
           starting to copy files:

           Press any key to begin copying file(s)

   - /? -- Displays help at the command prompt.

   Remarks:

   Using /v
   =========
   Windows XP does not use this command. It is accepted only for compatibility
   with MS-DOS files.

   Using /exclude:
   ===============
   List each string in a separate line in each file. If any of the listed
   strings match any part of the absolute path of the file to be copied, that
   file is then excluded from the copying process. For example, if the string
   "\Obj\" is specified, exclude all files underneath the Obj directory. If
   specify the string ".obj", exclude all files with the .obj extension.

   Using /z:
   =========
   If the connection is lost during the copy phase (for example, if the server
   going offline severs the connection), it resumes after reestablishing the
   connection. /z also displays the percentage of the copy operation completed
   for each file.

   Using /y in the COPYCMD environment variable:
   =============================================
   Use /y in the COPYCMD environment variable. Override this command by using
   /-y on the command line. The default to overwrite is prompted, unless xcopy
   is run from within a batch script.

   Copying encrypted files:
   ========================
   Copying encrypted files to a volume that does not support EFS results in an
   error. Decrypt the files first or copy the files to a volume that does
   support EFS.

   Appending files:
   ================
   To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files
   for source (i.e. by using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).

   Default value for Destination:
   ==============================
   If Destination is omitted, the xcopy command copies the files to the current
   directory.

   Specifying whether Destination is a file or directory:
   ======================================================
   If Destination does not contain an existing directory and does not end with a
   backslash (\), the following message appears:

      Does destination specify a file name
      or directory name on the target
      (F = file, D = directory)?

   Press F to copy the file or files to a file. Press D to copy the file or files
   to to a directory.

   This message can be suppressed by using the /i command-line option, which causes
   xcopy to assume that the destination is a directory if the source is more than
   one file or a directory.

   Using the xcopy command to set archive attribute for Destination files

   The xcopy command creates files with the archive attribute set, whether or not
   this attribute was set in the source file. For more information about file
   attributes and attrib, see Related Topics.

   Comparing xcopy and diskcopy:
   =============================
   If a disk that contains files in subdirectories and want to copy it to a disk
   that has a different format, use the xcopy command instead of diskcopy. Because
   the diskcopy command copies disks track by track, the source and destination
   disks must have the same format. The xcopy command does not have this requirement.
   Use xcopy unless a complete disk image copy is needed.

   Exit codes for xcopy:
   =====================
   To process exit codes returned by xcopy, use the errorlevel parameter on the if
   command line in a batch program. For an example of a batch program that processes
   exit codes using if, see Related Topics. The following table lists each exit code
   and a description.

      Exit code - Description

      0 - Files were copied without error.
      1 - No files were found to copy.
      2 - The user pressed CTRL+C to terminate xcopy.
      4 - Initialization error occurred. There is not enough memory or disk space,
          or an invalid drive name was entered or invalid syntax was specified on
          the command line.
      5 - Disk write error occurred.

   Examples:

   To copy all the files and subdirectories (including any empty subdirectories)
   from drive A to drive B, type:

      xcopy a: b: /s /e

   To include any system or hidden files in the previous example, add the/h
   command-line option as follows:

      xcopy a: b: /s /e /h

   To update files in the \Reports directory with the files in the \Rawdata
   directory that have changed since December 29, 1993, type:

      xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993

   To update all the files that exist in \Reports in the previous example, regardless
   of date, type:

      xcopy \rawdata \reports /u

   To obtain a list of the files to be copied by the previous command (i.e. without
   actually copying the files), type:

      xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993 /l > xcopy.out

   The file Xcopy.out lists every file that is to be copied.

   To copy the \Customer directory and all subdirectories to the directory
   \\Public\Address on network drive H:, retain the read-only attribute, and be
   prompted when a new file is created on H:, type:

      xcopy \customer h:\public\address /s /e /k /p

   To issue the previous command, ensure that xcopy creates the \Address directory if
   it does not exist, and suppress the message that appears when creating a new directory,
   add the /i command-line option as follows:

      xcopy \customer h:\public\address /s /e /k /p /i

   To create a batch program to perform xcopy operations and use the batch if command to
   process the exit code if an error occurs. For example, the following batch program uses
   replaceable parameters for the xcopy source and destination parameters:

      @echo off
      rem COPYIT.BAT transfers all files in all subdirectories of
      rem the source drive or directory (%1) to the destination rem drive or directory (%2)

      xcopy %1 %2 /s /e

      if errorlevel 4 goto lowmemory
      if errorlevel 2 goto abort
      if errorlevel 0 goto exit

      :lowmemory
      echo Insufficient memory to copy files or
      echo invalid drive or command-line syntax.
      goto exit

      :abort
      echo You pressed CTRL+C to end the copy operation.
      goto exit

      :exit

   To copy all source files, including subdirectories and even empty subdirections, plus
   retain the read-only attribute of source files that have them, to the destination folder
   (which is created if not existing) and do so without any prompting for overwriting or
   displaying what is being copied, type:

      set COPYCMD=/Y
      XCOPY C:\source_dir\*.* %1:\destination_dir /Q /D /E /R /K /Y /I
      set COPYCMD=-Y

   Note that the two "set COPYCMD's are there to assure that no prompting is done for file
   overwrites. Just a bit of extra insurance for some operating systems such as Win2000.


   To use this batch program to copy all files in the C:\Prgmcode directory and its
   subdirectories to drive B, type:

      copyit c:\prgmcode b:

   The command interpreter substitutes C:\Prgmcode for %1 and B: for %2, then uses xcopy
   with the /e and /s command-line options. If xcopy encounters an error, the batch program
   reads the exit code and goes to the label indicated in the appropriate IF ERRORLEVEL
   statement, then displays the appropriate message and exits from the batch program.

VARIOUS CODING EXAMPLES
GET/SET DRIVE LETTER AS PARAMETER Get the Drive letter parameter and if not present then default it to "C": Demonstrate: IF....GOTO Demonstrate: SET if "%1" == "" goto SetDrive SET DRIVE=%1 goto ContinueThis :SetDrive SET DRIVE=C :ContinueThis
VALIDATE PARAMETERS GIVEN Check for required parameter(s) and if missing then show expected command line syntax Demonstrate: IF....GOTO Demonstrate: IF....GOTO NOT EXIST Demonstrate: SET ERRORLEVEL @ECHO OFF if "%1" == "" goto showSyntax if "%1" == "" goto showSyntax rem assume parameter #1 is a directory name and if it does not exist, create it and check if that failed if not exist "%1" md "%1" if not exist "%1" goto badDirectory rem do whatever here....... goto exitTime :showSyntax echo Usage: thisBatchFileName directoryNameToUse echo. echo where directoryNameToUse is the name of the folder where the action happens set ERRORLEVEL=2 goto exitTime :badDirectory echo the directory given as the parameter could not be created set ERRORLEVEL=1 goto exittime :exitTime
EMPTY RECYCLE BIN Clear the Recycle Bin rd /s %systemdrive%\$Recycle.bin
GET DATE/TIME VARIABLES Get the current date/time into separate variables Demonstrate: IF Demonstrate: SET @ECHO OFF set hh=%time:~0,2% if "%hh:~0,1%" == " " set hh=0%hh:~1,1% set mn=%time:~3,2% if "%mn:~0,1%" == " " set mn=0%mn:~1,1% set ss=%time:~6,2% if "%ss:~0,1%" == " " set ss=0%ss:~1,1% set yy=%date:~-4% set mm=%date:~4,2% if "%mm:~0,1%" == " " set mm=0%mm:~1,1% set dd=%date:~7,2% if "%dd:~0,1%" == " " set dd=0%dd:~1,1% echo it currently is %mm%/%dd%/%yy% %hh%:%mn%:%ss%
GET DAY OF WEEK VARIABLE Get the day of the week (WIN7 or WIN8) Demonstrate: WMIC Demonstrate: FOR Demonstrate: IF/ELSE @echo off rem get 24-hour time for /F "tokens=1-4 delims=: " %%i in ('time /t') do ( set Hr=%%i set Mn=%%j set AP=%%k ) if "%AP%"=="PM" (set /a H=%Hr%+12) ELSE (set /a H = %Hr%+0) rem get date including day of week as an abbreviation wmic path win32_localtime get dayofweek for /F "tokens=1-4 delims=/ " %%i in ('date /t') do ( set WD=%%i set D=%%j set M=%%k set Y=%%l ) echo currently it is %Y%/%M%/%D% %H%:%Mn% on a %WD%
SYNC FOLDERS CONTENT Sync the files in two folders/directories Demonstrate: IF.....GOTO Demonstrate: COPYCMD @ECHO OFF if "%1" == "" goto NeedBothFolders if "%2" == "" goto NeedBothFolders set COPYCMD=/Y xcopy %1\*.* %2 /Q /D /E /R /K /Y set COPYCMT=-Y goto exittime :NeedBothFolders echo Valid usage syntax is: echo nameofthisbatfile.bat X Y echo where X is the full path of the FROM folder (without an ending backslash) echo and Y is the full path of the TO folder :exittime echo DONE...
ASSIGN DRIVE TO REMOTE PC On a network, link a server/PC to a temporarily assigned drive NOTE: it starts at Z looking for the first open drive Then the temporary drive gets unassigned via the "popd" Demonstrate: PUSHD and POPD pushd %tempdrv% rem do whatever for the new drive, refer to it with a period rem e.g. copy c:\myfiles\*.* .\backup\ /Q popd
REBOOT LOCALLY OR REMOTELY Reboot the PC, even remotely, after a given delay (in # of seconds) Demonstrate: TIMEOUT Demonstrate: SHUTDOWN @ECHO OFF rem pause for 60 seconds timeout /T 60 echo . . . . . rebooting in 6 seconds ..... timeout /T 5 shutdown -r -f -t 1 -m \\computernamehereCouldUseSystemVariableCalled%ComputerName%
EXPORT A REGISTRY KEY Retrieve from the System Registry the value(s) for the given Registry key Demonstrate: FOR Demonstrate: DO @ECHO OFF rem basically, say "REG" followed by registry key to export followed by name of file to export the key values into REG EXPORT HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Excel.Sheet.12 "c:\mypath\myfolder\excel12.reg"
IMPORT A REGISTRY KEY Add System Registry entries from a prior export Demonstrate: REGEDIT regedit.exe /S my_first_exported_registry_key.reg pause regedit.exe /S my_second_exported_registry_key.reg
SHOW INSTALLED PROGRAMS LIST IN EXCEL Get a listing of all installed software and their versions, open CSV in Excel Demonstrate: WMIC Demonstrate: MORE Demonstrate: START @echo off rem clean up final output file del C:\Software_%Computername%.csv /Q rem create a temp file with the column hdgs rem NOTE, despite order of columns selected, WMIC puts columns in its own order echo Node,InstallDate,InstallLocation,Name,ProductCode,Vendor,Version>> c:\csv_col_hdgs.txt rem generate the output file (sans column headings) echo this might take a couple of minutes to generate wmic /output:c:\garbagefirstline.txt product get Name,Version,Vendor,InstallDate,PackageCode,InstallLocation /format:csv rem the WMIC outputs a junk line instead of column headings so use the MORE command to start at line #2 more +2 "garbagefirstline.txt" > "csv_output_no_col_hdgs.txt" rem combine the two files generated above into one CSV file and open it with Excel type c:\csv_col_hdgs.txt >> C:\Software_%Computername%.csv" type c:\csv_output_no_col_hdgs.txt >> C:\Software_%Computername%.csv" start excel C:\Software_%Computername%.csv rem NOW, if you want to get really fancy, add VBA to rearrange the column order, freeze the top row, rem and set column widths
SEARCH THE LINES IN A TEXT FILE FOR A SPECIFIC VALUE Demonstrate: FINDSTR Use "FINDSTR" to filter out lines in a text file (.txt,.csv,.ini,etc.) In this example, the input file is searched for a specific value and once the record is found then another value within the record is actually wanted. The values in each record are delimited by some character. rem The values within each record of the input file are delimited by the below character (semi-colon in this case) rem The record key being searched is the first value in each record and is a numeric value in this example. rem The record value wanted from the search, in the example, is the third value within each record. set delimchar=; set valueToFind=18%delimchar% set myrecordkey= for /f "delims=" %%s in ('FINDSTR /b /C:%valueToFind% c:\mydatapath\myinputfile.csv ') do ( set "myfoundrec=%%s" ) echo Found=%myfoundrec% set outvalue= rem parse found record value to extract the value wanted for /f "tokens=1,2,3,4 delims=%delimchar%" %%a in ("%myfoundrec%") do set outvalue=%%c echo %outvalue%
READ THE LINES IN A TEXT FILE Demonstrate: FOR Read the lines in a text file (.txt,.csv,.ini,etc.) In this example, a comma-delimited file is read in, twice. The first time the file records are shown as one long string. The second time the individual fields within each file record are shown with double colons between them. Instead of doing "@echo" any of the various %%X fields could be used to set the value into a variable. Within a single FOR statement, the most %%X variables is 31. That is the 26 uppercase letters plus the five special characters used below. Note that, by default, the /F considers a blank space to be the beginning of a new record or line. for /F "first shopwing done, each record as one long string FOR /F "tokens=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31 delims=," %%? in (c:\testfile.csv) do @echo %%? :: %%@ :: %%A :: %%B :: %%C :: %%D :: %%E :: %%F :: %%G :: %%H :: %%I :: %%J :: %%K :: %%L :: %%M :: %%N :: %%O :: %%P :: %%Q :: %%R :: %%S :: %%T :: %%U :: %%V :: %%W :: %%X :: %%Y :: %%Z :: %%[ :: %%\ :: %%] :: pause ...second showing done CONDITIONALLY FILTER/REMOVE LINES FROM A TEXT FILE Demonstrate: FINDSTR Use "FINDSTR" to filter out lines in a text file (.txt,.csv,.ini,etc.) In this example, if any line of the input file contains any of the three given words then it will NOT be included in the output file FINDSTR /v "CASE_SENSITIVE_WORD_1 CASE_SENSITIVE_WORD_2 AND_MORE" c:\inputfile.txt > c:\outputfile.txt
RENAME GROUP OF FILE EXTENSIONS Rename all files with the extension of HTM (uppercase) to html (lowercase) Demonstrate: FOR for /f "Tokens=*" %%f in ('dir /l/b/a-d *.htm') do (rename "%%f" "%%f"l)
CALL BATCH FROM BATCH Execute a batch file from a batch file with optional parameters Demonstrate: CALL call batchfilename2.bat param1 param2 param3
EXECUTE EXTERNAL PROGRAM (see START) Execute an executable program (extension EXE) from a batch program Demonstrate: START start programname.exe programname.exe
COMPILE/RUN JAVA Compile then run a java program from a batch file Demonstrate: JAVA and JAVAC javac -deprecation -classpath . nameOfJavaFileHere.java javac -deprecation -classpath .;c:\folder1\folder2 -d c:\folder1\folder2\%1 nameOfJavaFileHere.java java nameOfJavaFileHere
TEMPORARILY ALTER SYSTEM PATH Temporarily add directories to the System Path Demonstrate: PATH ALTERING PATH=c:\myfolder;%PATH%
GET SYSTEM INFORMATION Gather/display various types of System Information Demonstrate: SYSTEMINFO, FINDSTR, WMIC @echo off echo Checking system information........... echo (ignore the message about loading HotFix Information) systeminfo | findstr /c:"Computer Name" systeminfo | findstr /c:"Domain" systeminfo | findstr /c:"OS Name" systeminfo | findstr /c:"OS Version" systeminfo | findstr /c:"System Manufacturer" systeminfo | findstr /c:"System Model" systeminfo | findstr /c:"System type" systeminfo | findstr /c:"Total Physical Memory" ipconfig | findstr IPv4 echo Hard Drive Space: wmic diskdrive get size echo Service Tag: wmic bios get serialnumber echo CPU: wmic cpu get name pause Done!


Compiler of this file: Larry Wilson, 09-18-2015